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Table 4 Overall effects by risk of bias

From: Self-management support interventions to reduce health care utilisation without compromising outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

  Overall effect size Effect size (high risk of bias) Effect size (low risk of bias)
95% CI 95% CI 95% CI
I2 I2 I2
Health outcomes 0.22 (0.17 to 0.26) 0.23 (0.18 to 0.29) 0.18 (0.12 to 0.25)
Hospital use −0.16 (−0.20 to −0.11) −0.18 (−0.24 to −0.11) −0.10 (−0.16 to −0.04)
Costs 0.02 (−0.05 to 0.08) 0.07 (−0.05 to 0.18) −0.01 (−0.09 to -0.07)