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Table 3 Summary – costs (overall ES, 95% CI, N, I 2 )

From: Self-management support interventions to reduce health care utilisation without compromising outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

  Combined QoL Self-management QoL Case management QoL Combined costs Self-management costs Case management costs
Respiratory 0.27 (0.16 to 0.37, n = 34, moderate) 0.28 (0.16 to 0.41, n = 27, moderate) 0.19 (0.02 to 0.36, n = 7, low) 0.09 (−0.14 to 0.33, n = 9, high) 0.09 (−0.19, 0.37) N = 6, high) 0.09 (−0.46 to 0.64, n = 3, high)
Cardiac 0.21 (0.14 to 0.28, n = 40, moderate) 0.19 (0.11 to 0.27, n = 27, moderate) 0.26 (0.12 to 0.39, n = 13, moderate) −0.25 (−0.47 to −0.04, n = 9, moderate) −0.25 (−0.82, 0.32, n = 4, high) −0.27 (−0.44, −0.10, n = 5, moderate)
Arthritis 0.16 (0.07 to 0.26, n = 11, zero) 0.17 (0.07 to 0.27, n = 7, zero) 0.13 (−0.13 to 0.39, n = 4, zero) 0.07 (−0.07 to 0.20, n = 11, moderate) 0.14 (0.01 to 0.27, n = 8, moderate) −0.28 (−0.53 to −0.03, n = 3, zero)
Pain 0.13 (0.04 to 0.21, n = 19, zero) 0.12 (0.02 to 0.22, n = 15, low) 0.20 (−0.11 to 0.51, n = 4, zero) 0.07 (−0.13 to 0.28, n = 13, high) 0.15 (−0.06 to 0.36, n = 11, high) −0.41 (−0.74 to −0.08), n = 2, zero)
Diabetes 0.44 (0.14 to 0.75, n = 10, high) 0.44 (0.14 to 0.75, n = 10, high)   0.19 (−0.18, 0.55, n = 4, moderate) 0.19 (−0.18, 0.55, n = 4, moderate)  
Mental health 0.22 (0.11 to 0.33, n = 26, high) 0.05 (−0.07 to 0.17, n = 15, moderate) 0.38 (0.24 to 0.51, n = 11, high) 0.03 (−0.05 to 0.11, n = 14, low) −0.04 (−0.23 to 0.15, n = 4, moderate) 0.05 (−0.04 to 0.13, n = 10, low)
Mixed 0.13 (0.02 to 0.24, n = 10, moderate) 0.11 (−0.03 to 0.24, n = 7, moderate) 0.22 (−0.03 to 0.48, n = 3, low) 0.06 (−0.02 to 0.13, n = 7, zero) 0.05 (−0.04 to 0.13, n = 6, zero) 0.11 (−0.09 to 0.31, n = 1, N/A)
  1. Bold letters: > =0.2 and statistically significant effects.