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Table 6 Bias assessment – included studies (n = 12)

From: Quality care outcomes following transitional care interventions for older people from hospital to home: a systematic review

  Risk of bias
  Selection bias1 Performance bias2 Detection bias3 Attrition bias4 Reporting bias5 Other bias6
First author (year) Random sequence generation Allocation concealment Blinding of participants and personnel Blinding of outcome assessment Incomplete outcome data Selective reporting Other sources of bias
Coleman (2006) [69] Low risk Unclear risk Unclear risk Low risk Low risk Low risk Low risk
Enguidanos (2012) [74] Low risk Low risk Unclear risk Low risk High risk (self-efficacy, service satisfaction) Low risk (service utilisation) Low risk Low risk
Hansen (1995) [70] Low risk Unclear risk High risk (personnel) Unclear risk (participants) Unclear risk Unclear risk Low risk Unclear risk
Legrain (2011) [71] Low risk Low risk High risk (personnel) Unclear risk (participants) Unclear risk Unclear risk Low risk Unclear risk
Lim (2003) [76] Low risk Low risk Unclear risk Low risk Unclear risk Low risk Unclear risk
McInnes (1999) [73] Low risk Low risk Unclear risk Low risk (service utilisation data) Unclear risk (questionnaire data) Unclear risk Low risk Unclear risk
Naylor (1990) [72] Low risk Low risk High risk (personnel) Unclear risk (participants) Unclear risk Unclear risk Low risk Unclear risk
Naylor (1994) [68] Unclear risk Unclear risk Unclear risk Unclear risk Unclear risk Unclear risk Unclear risk
Naylor (1999) [77] Low risk Low risk High risk (personnel) Unclear risk (participants) Low risk Unclear risk Low risk Unclear risk
Naylor (2004) [75] Low risk Low risk High risk (personnel) Unclear risk (participants) Low risk Unclear risk Low risk Low risk
Preen (2005) [66] Unclear risk Unclear risk Unclear risk Unclear risk Unclear risk Low risk Unclear risk
Weinberger (1996) [67] Unclear risk Low risk Unclear risk Low risk Unclear risk Low risk Unclear risk
  1. 1Selection bias refers to the adequacy of randomisation processes (random sequence generation) and the adequacy of the concealment of allocation to intervention group (allocation concealment) [38].
  2. 2Performance bias is the knowledge of research participants and research staff of the interventions that participants were allocated to [38].
  3. 3Detection bias is outcome assessors’ knowledge of the interventions that participants were allocated to [38].
  4. 4Attrition bias was the potential for biased conclusions resulting from incomplete outcome data [38].
  5. 5Reporting bias referred to the selection of particular outcomes for reporting [38].
  6. 6The potential for other sources of bias (other bias) was also appraised [38].
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