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Table 3 Association between potential explanatory variables and overall patient assessment of chronic illness care (PACIC) a

From: Implementation of chronic illness care in German primary care practices – how do multimorbid older patients view routine care? A cross-sectional study using multilevel hierarchical modeling

Variables Regression coefficient 95% confidence interval pvalueb
Patient characteristics    
Sex    
Female −0.08 −0.2; 0.04 0.165
Male Reference   
Age (min. 65, max. 84 years)    
Continuous −0.00 −0.00; 0.00 0.23
Education level (CASMIN classification: 1 = low, 2 = middle, 3 = high)    
Continuous 0.03 −0.01; 0.07 0.22
Autonomy of former occupation (value range from 0 = no occupation to 5 = occupation with high autonomy)    
Continuous 0.04 0.02; 0.06 0.005
Household-adjusted regular monthly net income (in €)    
Continuous −0.00 −0.00; 0.00 0.23
No. of contacts with GP    
Continuous 0.01 −0.01; 0.03 0.006
Weighted count of chronic conditions    
Continuous 0.01 0.01; 0.01 0.095
Existence of a DMP disease c    
Yes 0.11 0.05; 0.17 <0.001
No Reference   
Depression (GDS, possible values range: 0–15)    
Continuous −0.00 −0,02; 0,02 0.70
Instrumental activities of daily living (IADL, possible value range: 0–8)    
Continuous −0.01 −0.05; 0.03 0.67
Quality of life (visual analogue scale, possible value range: 0–100)    
Continuous 0.00 0.00; 0.00 0.03
Graded Chronic Pain Scale (GCPS grades: 0 = pain free to 4 = high disability, severely limiting)    
Continuous 0.05 0.03; 0.07 <0.001
Self-efficacy scale (possible mean score range: 1–4)    
Continuous 0.04 −0.02; 0.1 0.25
Social support (F-SozU K-14; possible mean overall score range: 1–5)    
Continuous 0.16 0.12; 0.20 <0.001
GP characteristics    
Sex    
Female 0.12 0.00; 0.24 0.044
Male Reference   
Years of ownership of the practice    
Continuous −0.01 −0.01; −0.01 0.067
Practice type    
Shared or group practice −0.13 −0.23; −0.03 0.016
Solo practice Reference   
Practice size, i.e. number of patients treated in last three months    
Continuous −0.01 −0.07; 0.05 0.77
  1. aThese analyses are based on n = 3189 patients; missing values were imputed
  2. b p values marked in bold are statistically significant on the basis of a significance level of 0.05.
  3. cGerman DMPs exist for the following diseases: breast cancer, diabetes mellitus type I or II, coronary heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bronchial asthma.