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Table 3 Changes in the dimensions between baseline and follow-up within each hospital

From: The patient safety culture as perceived by staff at two different emergency departments before and after introducing a flow-oriented working model with team triage and lean principles: a repeated cross-sectional study

Dimension County hospital University hospital
Baseline Follow-up Change p-value Baseline Follow-up Change p-value
% % а   % % а  
All participants’ responses n 172 n 181    n 118 n 149   
1. Non-punitive response to error 31.8 31.9   NS 48.3 43.0   NS
2. Staffing 26.8 24.6   NS 52.1 45.9 - *
3. Frequency of event reporting 21.9 23.6   NS 27.3 16.1   NS
4. Hospital management Support for patient safety 13.7 16.1   NS 36.9 34.7   NS
5. Team-work across hospital units 31.3 27.8   NS 34.7 43.0 + ***
6. Hospital Hand-off and transition 34.6 32.9   NS 46.8 46.6   NS
7. Information and support to patients at adverse events 44.8 40.1   NS 46.3 32.7 - **
8. Information and support to staff at adverse events 37.6 29.7 - * 28.2 31.7   NS
9. Overall perception of safety 24.3 27.1   NS 44.6 41.6   NS
11. Organizational learning-continuous improvement 37.4 35.9   NS 48.4 52.8   NS
12. Team-work within hospital 56.9 63.3 + * 71.7 80.1 + **
13. Communication openness 51.2 57.9 + * 66.0 61.8   NS
14. Feedback and communication about error 45.8 50.1   NS 48.9 46.0   NS
15. Patient safety grade 62.0 56.7   NS 91.1 82.0 - *
  1. а Direction of the change from baseline measurement to follow-up.
  2. *** = p < 0.001, ** = p < 0.01, * = p < 0.05, NS = not significant.
  3. An index of < 50 is considered low and should lead to action, 51 - 69 suggests potential for improvement, and ≥ 70 indicates that the unit is functioning well.
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