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Table 4 Incidence rate ratios of health system characteristics associated with avoidable hospitalizations

From: Avoidable hospitalizations in Switzerland: a small area analysis on regional variation, density of physicians, hospital supply and rurality

Characteristic All avoidable hospitalizations Asthma CHF COPD Diabetes Hypertension
Intercept 0.005* 0.000* 0.002* 0.001* 0.001* 0.001*
Year 2008 - - - - - -
Year 2009 1.155* 0.979 0.923* 1.011 0.954 1.066*
Year 2010 1.168* 1.105* 0.940* 1.042* 0.904* 1.016
Primary care physicians per 10000 0.986* 0.989 0.998 1.006 1.015* 1.003
Q1 - - - - - -
Q2 1.033 0.827* 1.060 1.043 1.174* 1.064
Q3 1.028 0.819* 0.996 1.049 1.152* 1.043
Q4 1.043 0.769* 1.021 1.046 1.132* 1.065
Q5 0.905* 0.883 1.002 1.029 1.189* 1.020
Specialists per 10000 1.017* 1.048* 1.017* 1.017* 1.019* 1.013
Q1 - - - - - -
Q2 1.019 1.162 0.961 0.996 1.073 1.018
Q3 1.066* 1.044 1.008 1.031 1.126* 0.985
Q4 1.067* 1.262* 1.040 1.101* 1.063 1.005
Q5 1.152* 1.330* 1.132* 1.125* 1.162* 1.131
Proportion of residents in rural communities 1.113* 0.799 1.207* 1.061 0.981 0.888
Q1 - - - - - -
Q2 0.987 0.918 1.023 0.895* 0.999 0.887
Q3 1.038 0.842 1.044 1.148* 0.990 0.967
Q4 1.037 0.771* 1.047 1.006 1.055 0.972
Q5 1.115* 0.859 1.171* 1.022 1.009 0.897
Hospital beds per 10000 1.000 1.001 0.999 1.001 1.000 0.998
Q1 - - - - - -
Q2 1.008 1.144 1.040 0.959 1.134 0.918
Q3 1.023 1.076 1.027 1.069 1.141 0.804*
Q4 1.026 1.023 1.032 1.073 1.141 0.838*
Q5 1.024 1.062 1.001 1.069 1.070 0.877
Type of hospital reimbursement 0.949 1.414* 1.005 0.909 0.932 0.662*
  1. *Significant incidence risk ratio, p < 0.05.
  2. Year 2008 as the reference.
  3. Incidence risk ratio from a model with annual quintiles of continuous explanatory variables with the first quintile as the reference, quintiles are varying across years therefore no threshold levels are given in the table.