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Table 2 Characteristics of patients expressing a “utility” value less than one

From: Willingness to pay for a quality-adjusted life year: an evaluation of attitudes towards risk and preferences

  Mean (95% CI) Median (IQ range) Percentages (95% CI)
Age (years) 67.9 (66.5–69.3) 71 (59–80)  
Sex (female)    69.3% (65.1–73.5%)
Spanish nationality    96.0% (94.2–97.9%)
Superior education    30.9% (26.7–35.1%)
Social group    
Manager, Director    7.9% (5.4–10.5%)
Intermediate positions    12.1% (9.1–15.1%)
Skilled non-manual worker    23.4% (19.5–27.3%)
Skilled manual worker    24.0% (20.1–27.9%)
Partially skilled manual worker    13.2% (10.0–16.3%)
Unskilled manual worker    19.4% (15.8–23.0%)
Family members 2.6 (2.5–2.7) 2 (2–3)  
Adjusted family income (€1,000) 0.816 (0.774–0.859) 0.600 (0.500–1.000)  
Another insurance    14.2% (11.0–17.4%)
Chronic condition    86.1% (82.9–89.4%)
Hospitalizations    34.7% (30.3–39.0%)
Doctor consultations/year 13.0 (12.0–14.1) 10 (5–17)  
Current tobacco consumption    16.1% (12.7–19.5%)
Excessive alcohol consumption    4.2% (2.3–6.1%)
Other drug consumption    0.8% (0.2–2.1%)
Self-perceived inclination to risk (1–10) 4.8 (4.6–5.1) 5 (2–7)  
Inclination to risk    7.6% (5.1–10.1%)
VAS – EuroQol-5D-3 L 60.3 (58.3–62.3) 60 (50–80)  
EuroQol-5D-3 L Utilities 0.56 (0.54–0.59) 0.65 (0.37–0.79)  
  1. 95% CI: Confidence Interval 95%.
  2. IQ range: Interquartile range (25–75 percentile).
  3. VAS-EuroQol-5D-3 L: Visual Analog Scale of EuroQol-5D-3 L questionnaire.