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Table 3 Mean (SD) costs (€) over one year and mean differences in costs (€) between groups

From: Resource use and costs of type 2 diabetes patients receiving managed or protocolized primary care: a controlled clinical trial

  Managed care Protocolized care Usual care Mean differences in costs between managed and usual care (95% CI) Mean differences in costs between protocolized and usual care (95% CI)
  (n = 215) (n = 197) (n = 333) Model 1 Model 2 Model 1 Model 2
Direct health care costs 1259 (2712) 1568 (3288) 2607 (8678) -1348 (-2593 to-531) a -1188 (-2559 to -339) a -1057 (-2333 to -201) a -794 (-2082 to 52)
Direct non-health care costs 17 (102) 19 (127) 13 (92) 4 (-10 to 25) 8 (-6 to 29) 7 (-10 to 33) 6 (-13 to 33)
Total direct costs 1276 (2715) 1587 (3293) 2620 (8680) -1344 (-2606 to -541) a -1181 (-2597 to -334) a -1050 (-2336 to -191) a -788 (-2042 to 47)
Indirect costs 1727 (8808) 1125 (4548) 1328 (4840) 461 (-524 to 2277) 758 (-353 to 2701) -78 (-782 to 836) -96 (-844 to 823)
Total costs 3003 (9457) 2711 (5690) 3949 (10328) -882 (-2415 to 932) -423 (-2146 to 1566) -1128 (-2682 to 86) -884 (-2281 to 323)
  1. Usual care is the reference category.
  2. Model 1: adjusted for age and sex.
  3. Model 2: further adjusted for diabetes duration, marital status, educational level and retirement.
  4. aSignificantly different (P < 0.05) from usual care.