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Table 2 Resource use and productivity loss stratified by diabetes care over one year

From: Resource use and costs of type 2 diabetes patients receiving managed or protocolized primary care: a controlled clinical trial

  Managed care Protocolized care Usual care
  N = 215 N = 197 N =333
Consultation of .. % ≥1 visits Mean (SD) # of visits % ≥1 visits Mean (SD) # of visits % ≥1 visits Mean (SD) # of visits
General practitioner 77.8 7.6 (8.6) 80.0 5.7 (6.9) 78.4 6.1 (6.9)
Diabetes nurse 74.5ab 3.8 (3.8)b 82.6 4.3 (3.5)a 84.5 3.7 (2.8)
Dietician 38.4ab 1.4 (2.4)ab 20.5 0.9 (2.2) 21.9 0.9 (2.4)
Podiatrist 19.4b 0.7 (1.8)b 9.2a 0.4 (1.6)a 24.3 1.2 (2.9)
Physical therapist 25.9 5.3 (13.8) 30.3a 7.3 (18.1)a 21.0 3.9 (11.9)
Specialist in       
- Internal medicine 6.9ab 0.4 (2.0)ab 15.4a 0.6 (1.7)a 28.9 1.5 (2.8)
- Ophthalmology 17.6ab 0.8 (2.5)ab 47.7 1.5 (2.5) 52.0 1.8 (2.6)
- Cardiology 15.7 0.6 (2.5) 15.4 0.7 (1.9) 15.2 0.7 (2.3)
- Neurology 5.1 0.2 (0.9) 6.2 1.6 (0.7) 6.4 0.6 (4.0)
- Nephrology 1.4 0.0 (0.4) 3.6 0.2 (1.3) 1.8 0.1 (0.4)
Other specialism 25.9 1.4 (3.1) 27.7 1.4 (2.9) 32.8 1.6 (4.0)
Hospitalization 9.7 0.7 (3.0) 10.3 1.1 (4.7) 12.5 2.7 (14.8)
Absenteeism paid work 8.8 4.9 (27.8) 10.8 2.8 (14.1) 10.0 3.1 (15.2)
Absenteeism unpaid work 13.9 12.3 (50.0) 9.7 18.2 (127.4)a 18.2 20.7 (70.6)
  1. Data are expressed as proportions of patients who used the specific resource and mean (SD) resource use per patient over one year. aSignificantly different (P < 0.05) from usual care. bSignificantly different (P < 0.05) from protocolized care.