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Table 4 The health expenditures of KardioPro

From: Should health insurers target prevention of cardiovascular disease?: a cost-effectiveness analysis of an individualised programme in Germany based on routine data

Strategies   All health expenditures Cost components    
Difference in total costs Difference in hospital costs Difference in physician costs Difference in pharmaceutical costs Difference in other* costs
KardioPro for all risk groups Difference in study population in millions € (SE) 8.84 −1.63 9.14 −0.86 2.18
(1.75) (1.25) (0.29) (0.88) (0.70)
Mean difference per pair in € (SE) 674.35 −124.67 697.08 −65.51 253.13
(134.42) (96.20) (21.68) (66.68) (53.74)
KardioPro for the CHD group Difference in study population in millions € (SE) 0.67 −0.33 1.7 −0.41 −0.28
(0.86) (0.73) (0.11) (0.31) (0.37)
Mean difference per pair in € (SE) 473.92 −234.95 1,205.13 −287.29 38.88
(607.50) (513.24) (82.18) (217.38) (265.70)
KardioPro for the high-risk group Difference in study population in millions € (SE) 0.58 −0.74 0.97 0.13 0.22
(0.54) (0.41) (0.08) (0.16) (0.24)
Mean difference per pair in € (SE) 604.79 −768.09 1,005.87 135.68 57.04
(554.86) (430.80) (81.05) (165.36) (252.03)
KardioPro for the medium-risk group Difference in study population in millions € (SE) 1.44 −0.27 1.38 −0.34 0.66
(0.73) (0.54) (0.09) (0.33) (0.25)
Mean difference per pair in € (SE) 832.47 −153.44 799.42 −199.39 799.42
(424.84) (305.99) (55.84) (194.26) (55.84)
KardioPro for the low-risk group Difference in study population in millions € (SE) 6.15 −0.29 5.09 −0.24 1.59
(1.21) (0.75) (0.23) (0.74) (0.48)
Mean difference per pair in € (SE) 682.84 −33.01 564.81 −26.60 564.81
(137.43) (86.76) (25.14) (80.98) (25.14)
  1. *Other costs include costs for any other health services such as physiotherapy or laboratory services, costs for additional services such as acupuncture and also the costs of sickness benefits.
  2. CHD: coronary heart diseases.
  3. SE: standard error.
  4. Costs were inflated to the year 2010 and discounted at 5%.