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Table 1 Injection drug use, HIV, and research methods in study sites

From: Pharmacies as providers of expanded health services for people who inject drugs: a review of laws, policies, and barriers in six countries

Site Est. n PWID Predominant injected drug(s) Est. HIV prevalence among PWID Est. % of HIV infections attributable to drug use Methods
Original sites funded under linked NIDA grants
Boston 10,064a heroin 4.5%b-8.4%c 9%d Formative research, qualitative interviews, quantitative surveys, review of legal and policy documents
Providence 2,137a opiates 5.3%b 6%e
San Francisco 17,000 heroin, methamphetamine 12% 22%f
Ha Giang, Vietnam 1,000 heroin 18% >50%
St. Petersburg, Russia 83,000g heroin 44%-59%h 76%
Xichang, China 2,250 heroin 18% 60%
Additional sites
Tijuana, Mexico 6,400-10,000 heroin, heroin/methamphetamine 4%i 12% Focus groups, quantitative survey, review of legal and policy documents
Vancouver, Canada 10,000-15,000 Cocaine, heroin, methamphetamine 17% (2006) 18% (since 2008) Ongoing ethnographic and qualitative research, review of legal and policy documents
  1. aBased on methods in Brady JE, Friedman SR, Cooper HL, Flom PL, Tempalski B, Gostnell K. Estimating the prevalence of injection drug users in the U.S. and in large U.S. metropolitan areas from 1992 to 2002. J Urban Health 2008, 85: 323–351.
  2. bTempalski B, Lieb S, Cleland CM, Cooper H, Brady JE, Friedman SR. HIV prevalence rates among injection drug users in 96 large US metropolitan areas, 1992–2002. J Urban Health 2009, 86: 132–154.
  3. cNational Health Behavior Survey, 2009.
  4. dCases reported in 2010, from Massachusetts Department of Public Health, 2012 Epidemiological Profile.
  5. eCases reported 2008–2010, from Rhode Island Department of Public Health, 2010 Epidemiological Profile.
  6. fNewly reported cases in 2010, includes PWID and MSM/PWID.
  7. gHeimer R, White E. Estimation of the number of injection drug users in St. Petersburg, Russia. Drug Alcohol Dependence 2010, 109: 79–83.
  8. hNiccolai LM, Shcherbakova IS, Toussova OV, Kozlov AP, Heimer R. The potential for bridging of HIV transmission in Russian Federation: sex risk behaviors and HIV prevalence among drug users (DUs) and their non-DU sex partners. J Urban Health 2009, 86(Suppl 1): 131–143; Eritsyan K, Heimer R, Barbour R, Odinokova V, White E, Rusakova MM, Smolskaya TT, Levina OS. Individual-, network-, and city-level factors associated with HIV prevalence among people who inject drugs in eight Russian cities. BMJ Open, In press.
  9. IStrathdee SA, Lozada R, Ojeda VD, Pollini RA, Brouwer KC, Vera A, Cornelius W, Nguyen L., Magis-Rodriguez C, Patterson TL, Proyecto El Cuete. Differential effects of migration and deportation on HIV infection among male and female injection drug users in Tijuana, Mexico. PLoS One 2008, 3(7):e2690.doi:0.1371/journal.pone.0002690.