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Table 2 Examples of the variation in influence strategies used by managers in our study, and how they relate to different bases of power [28]

From: Clinicians in management: a qualitative study of managers’ use of influence strategies in hospitals

Influence strategy Type of power
Upwards in the hierarchy  
Advance professional considerations/concerns Expert
Use a doctor as one’s agent to increase argumentative strength Expert
Use different titles strategically Expert
“Whine”/argue that “everybody else gets more resources” Informational
Avoid shouting “wolf” too often Informational
Sabotage Coercive
Downwards in the hierarchy  
- Be a professional role model (e.g. performing surgery) Expert
- Challenge arguments (e.g. “I have done this procedure before”) Expert
- Be a general role model (e.g. arriving early to work) Referent
- Be a facilitator (e.g. doing the “crappy” work) Referent
- Rephrase and redefine language Informational