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Table 1 Part A. Multivariate analysis of PAH incidence rates using different risk adjustment models (N = 2,022,019)

From: Comparing potentially avoidable hospitalization rates related to ambulatory care sensitive conditions in Switzerland: the need to refine the definition of health conditions and to adjust for population health status

   Adjustment models
    Age-sex Inpatient morbidity Outpatient morbidity Whole morbidity Number of medical visits
Variables Number (%) IRR IRR IRR IRR 95% CI IRR 95% CI
Demographic            
Men 0-10 96,229 (4.8) 2.53 2.54 2.80 2.82 2.52 3.16 5.28 4.70 5.93
Men 11-20 110,428 (5.5) 0.98ns 1.02ns 1.18 1.21 1.06 1.39 2.71 2.36 3.11
Men 21-30 125,720 (6.2) 0.98ns 1.00ns 1.18 1.19 1.04 1.36 2.48 2.17 2.84
Men 31-40 156,812 (7.8) 1.01ns 1.03ns 1.16 1.16 1.03 1.32 2.14 1.89 2.43
Men 41-50 164,037 (8.1) 1.30 1.29 1.39 1.37 1.22 1.53 2.08 1.85 2.33
Men 51-60 137,066 (6.8) 2.31 2.15 1.97 1.85 1.68 2.09 2.33 2.09 2.60
Men 61-70 101,636 (5.0) 4.08 3.48 2.66 2.42 2.17 2.69 2.60 2.34 2.89
Men 71-80 65,069 (3.2) 7.78 6.12 3.67 3.25 2.91 3.61 3.28 2.96 3.65
Men 81-90 32,187 (1.6) 12.95 9.80 5.26 4.67 4.16 5.24 4.55 4.08 5.08
Men 91-100 6,655 (0.3) 15.52 12.86 7.79 6.87 5.72 8.27 6.65 5.62 7.88
Women 0-10 92,082 (4.6) 2.03 2.00 2.34 2.32 2.06 2.61 5.05 4.47 5.70
Women 11-20 104,850 (5.2) 1.10ns 1.13ns 1.30 1.32 1.16 1.45 2.65 2.11 3.03
Women 21-30 123,566 (6.1) 1.26 1.27 1.32 1.34 1.18 1.52 1.44 1.27 1.63
Women 41-50 157,341 (7.8) 1.16 1.13 1.09ns 1.08 0.96 1.22 1.55 1.37 1.74
Women 51-60 134,850 (6.7) 1.68 1.59 1.35 1.19 1.16 1.45 1.87 1.67 2.09
Women 61-70 105,225 (5.2) 2.87 2.61 1.81 1.73 1.55 1.93 2.29 2.06 2.55
Women 71-80 81,157 (4.0) 5.01 4.28 2.36 2.24 2.00 2.50 2.74 2.47 3.05
Women 81-90 53,433 (2.6) 9.36 7.57 3.91 3.66 3.28 4.08 4.17 3.75 4.63
Women 91-100 15,375 (0.8) 9.39 8.08 4.86 4.54 3.93 5.26 5.12 4.45 5.88
ACSC related conditions            
Bronchitis and asthma 17,302 (0.86)   3.05 3.65 3.07 2.88 3.27 2.12 2.01 2.23
Diabetes, complicated 2,627 (0.13)   1.61 - 1.19 0.99 1.42 1.03 .89 1.20
Diabetes, no complicated 14,714 (0.73)   1.14ns 1.89 1.75 1.62 1.90 1.33 1.24 1.42
Epilepsy 6,058 (0.30)   7.57 2.48 2.85 2.54 3.20 1.62 1.47 1.78
Female genital tract 20,589 (1.02)   1.50 1.41 1.24 1.13 1.36 0.70 0.65 0.77
Gastro-intestinal tract 34,765 (1.72)   2.33 1.41 1.37 1.30 1.46 1.06 1.01 1.11
Heart diseases 22,805 (1.13)   1.40 1.37 .99 .99 1.07 1.03 .97 1.09
HTA and other circulatory disorder 75,163 (3.72)   0.94ns 2.73 3.00 2.75 3.08 1.13 1.08 1.18
Infection, complicated 2,526 (0.12)   2.85 - 2.88 2.35 3.53 1.32 1.12 1.55
Infection, other 65,106 (3.22)   3.53 2.81 3.01 2.86 3.17 1.19 1.14 1.24
Infection, severe 1,699 (0.08)   3.47 - 3.85 3.14 4.71 1.91 1.63 2.24
Intestinal or urinary obstruction 3,640 (0.18)   0.97ns - .74 .60 .91 .52 .44 .63
Nutritional anemia 4,036 (0.20)   1.67 - 1.57 1.35 1.84 1.24 1.09 1.41
Severe lung disease 7,603 (0.38)   2.94 - 2.20 1.98 2.44 1.54 1.42 1.67
Urinary infection 4,347 (0.21)   1.57 - 1.87 1.48 2.38 1.07 .87 1.31
ACSC related multi-morbidity 2,281 (0.11)   17.07 15.13 29.39 25.33 34.10 5.12 4.55 5.76
Comorbidity categories            
Cancer 7,944 (0.39)   0.83 0.94ns .70 .62 .78 .61 .55 .68
CNS diseases 3,014 (0.15)   1.22 - 1.03 .88 1.21 1.00 .88 1.14
Endocrine diseases 8,408 (0.42)   1.13ns 0.97ns 1.02 .92 1.13 .98 .90 1.06
Liver & biliary tract 6,272 (0.31)   1.12ns 1.04ns .94 .83 1.06 .87 .79 .96
Mental disorders 51,605 (2.55)   1.51 1.52 1.48 1.40 1.57 1.05 1.01 1.10
Metabolic disorders 19,825 (0.98)   1.33 1.26 1.08 1.00 1.16 1.04 .98 1.10
Nephritis 6,841 (0.34)   1.22 - 1.05 0.94 1.16 1.16 1.06 1.26
Other lung disease 5,478 (0.27)   1.28 .76ns 1.06 0.95 1.19 1.12 1.03 1.23
Pain & chronic restriction of mobility 27,280 (1.35)   0.91ns 1.22 .93 .87 .99 .80 .76 .85
Systemic rheumatic diseases and transplantation 1,388 (0.07)   1.16ns 1.90 1.29 1.05 1.58 1.23 1.04 1.45
Skin diseases 35,802 (1.77)   1.26 1.45 1.32 1.24 1.40 .99 .95 1.04
Thrombosis 39,704 (1.96)   0.81 1.36 1.32 1.24 1.39 1.08 1.04 1.45
Trauma 9,074 (0.45)   0.62 - .53 .47 .60 .49 .45 .54
Physician self-dispensation    - - 1.16 1.15 1.11 1.20 .92 .89 .95
2006 follow-up 1,686,481 (83.41) 2.02 2.16 1.74 1.80 1.64 1.97 .99 .90 1.08
Number of medical contacts          See Figure 1
       Measures of model fit
AIC    179,024 172,473 162,835 159,196 130,962
BIC    179,299 173,112 163,361 159,847 131,776
Pseudo R2    5.2 8.7 14.1 15.8 30.8
  1. CI: confidence interval; IRR: incidence rate ratio; ns: not significant (p ≥ 0.05).