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Table 2 Association between referral compliance with referral characteristics and socio-demographic factors (N = 303)

From: Compliance with referrals for non-acute child health conditions: evidence from the longitudinal ASENZE study in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa

Covariate Completed/total referrals (N)a Referral compliance (%) Crude OR 95% CI
Overall 135/303 44.6   
Demographics     
Child age at time of referral     0.83-2.12
≥5 years 67/160 41.9 Ref  
<5 years 62/127 48.8 1.32  
Child gender     0.94-2.33
Female 62/155 40.0 Ref  
Male 73/147 49.7 1.48  
Caregiver age     1.05-2.77
≥40 years 41/115 35.7 Ref  
<40 years 84/173 48.6 1.70*  
Type of primary caregiver     0.63-1.66
Birth mother 88/196 44.9 Ref  
Other family member 45/99 45.5 1.02  
Household wealth statusc     0.29-1.07
Richest 20% 37/65 56.9 Ref 0.29-0.93
Middle 40% 36/85 42.4 0.56  
Poorest 40% 62/152 40.8 0.52*  
Highest educational attainment of any member     2.02-11.88
≤Secondary School 90/224 40.2 Ref  
>Secondary School 23/30 76.7 4.89***  
Same caregiver in both Phase 1 and Phase 2 assessments     1.85-8.65
No 9/45 20.0 Ref  
Yes 125/250 50.0 4.00***  
Primary referral problem    N/Ab N/Ab
 Mild anemia 25/41 61.0
 Hearing or ear problem 35/68 51.5
 Vision problem 18/36 50.0
 Problem requiring occupational, speech or physical therapy 1/2 50.0
 Behavioral problems 0/7 0.0
 HIV 12/20 60.0
 Developmental delay 7/14 50.0
 Dental problem 4/11 36.4
 Other 32/102 31.4
Referral facility type (level of care provided)    N/Ab N/Ab
 Local health clinic (primary) 70/128 54.7
 Community health center (primary) 2/4 50.0
 District hospital (secondary) 2/3 66.7
 Regional hospital (tertiary) 54/96 56.3
 Other 3/6 50.0  
  1. aFor each bivariate association, denominators may vary because of missing data.
  2. bNot applicable for chi-square tests due to low expected counts in at least one category.
  3. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001.
  4. c% of overall study sample (all 1581 children who completed phase 1 assessment).