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Table 1 Characteristics of study sample referred to an outside health facility (N = 303)

From: Compliance with referrals for non-acute child health conditions: evidence from the longitudinal ASENZE study in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa

Child and caregiver characteristics Mean age in yrs (SD, range)
 Child age 5.0 (0.6, 3.7-6.0)
 Caregiver age 39.7 (14.1, 20.0-81.0)
  N (% of sample) a
 Child gender  
Male 147 (48.5)
Female 156 (51.5)
 Type of primary caregivera  
Other family member 99 (32.7)
Birth mother 197 (65.0)
 Household wealth statusb  
Richest 20% 65 (21.5)
Middle 40% 85 (28.0)
Poorest 40% 153 (50.5)
 Highest educational attainment of any household membera  
≤Secondary School 225 (74.3)
>Secondary School 30 (9.9)
 Same caregiver in both Phase 1 and Phase 2 assessmentsa  
Yes 243 (82.5)
No 46 (14.9)
Referral characteristics N (% of sample) a
 Primary referral problem a  
 Mild anemia 41 (13.5)
 Hearing or ear problem 68 (22.4)
 Vision problem 36 (11.9)
 Problem requiring occupational, speech or physical therapy 2 (0.7)
 Behavioral problems 7 (2.3)
 HIV 20 (6.6)
 Developmental delay 14 (4.6)
 Dental problem 11 (3.6)
 Other 103 (34.0)
 Type of facility referred to (level of care) a  
 Local health clinic (primary) 128 (42.2)
 Community health center (primary) 4 (1.3)
 District hospital (secondary) 3 (1.0)
 Regional hospital (tertiary) 96 (31.7)
 Other 6 (2.0)
 Unknown 64 (21.1)
  1. a% of sample may not equal 100% due to missing data.
  2. b% of overall study sample (all 1581 children who completed phase 1 assessment).