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Table 1 Accountability relationships in universities and healthcare providers that form core constituent parts of AHSCs and AHSNs

From: Improving accountability through alignment: the role of academic health science centres and networks in England

  Universities: Medical schools Healthcare providers: Hospitals and GPs
Hierarchical Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS); university. Department of Health (DH); NHS trusts/FTs; GP practices/CCGs.
Legal Health research legislation and regulatory bodies [35]; higher education legislation; Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education; undergraduate medical education and research funding grants including the DH’s National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) and contracts with BIS’s higher education and research funding councils, medical research charities, industry partners, and students. Healthcare legislation and regulatory bodies [54]; National Audit Office; Care Quality Commission; Monitor (economic regulator); Office of Fair Trading; health research legislation and regulatory bodies [35]; postgraduate medical education and training contracts with Health Education England and Local Education and Training Boards; health service contracts between commissioners (CCGs and NHS England) and NHS trusts/FTs; national contract between GPs and NHS England; research grants and contracts with NIHR, medical research charities, and industry partners.
Professional General Medical Council, medical royal colleges and faculties; Academy of Medical Sciences; national and international professional associations; research community peers; university research ethics committees. General Medical Council; medical royal colleges and faculties; NHS medical director; NHS trust/FT medical director; NHS trust/FT clinical governance and risk management peer groups.
Political Parliament; BIS; NHS and industry partners; public involved in research; local and global patient communities. Parliament, NHS England (and through its mandate, DH); local authorities’ overview and scrutiny committees; patient and public representatives’ Healthwatch; NHS trust/FT non-executive directors; NHS FT governors and members.