The “unlinked partners” model of academic-clinical relationships in England, 2014. The left and right panels represent funding and accountability relationships in the academic and clinical enterprises of AHSCs and AHSNs, respectively. Solid arrowed lines () indicate major funding flows; arrowed dash lines () indicate accountability relationships. Adapted from: Ovseiko et al.  and Department of Health: Equity and Excellence: Liberating the NHS. London: Department of Health; 2010.