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Table 3 Factors associated with caregivers’ burden (n = 85)

From: Cost and burden of informal caregiving of dependent older people in a rural Indian community

Explanatory variables βa(95% CI) p value βb(95% CI) p value
Care recipients' characteristics:     
Age in years -0.1 (-0.5; +0.2) 0.41 -0.1 (-0.4; +0.2) 0.45
Male gender +4.3 (-0.1; +8.8) 0.06 +3.6 (-1.2; +8.5) 0.14
Household size -0.3 (-1.1; +0.5) 0.47 -0.2 (-1.0; +0.6) 0.63
Receives pension support -4.5 (-9.5; +0.6) 0.08 -4.0 (-9.3; +1.2) 0.13
Sleep disturbance +4.8 (+0.5; +9.1) 0.03 +5.5 (+1.3; +9.8) 0.01
Had experienced fall more than once +2.7 (-5.1; +10.5) 0.49 +2.86 (-5.1; +10.8) 0.47
Urinary Incontinence +6.9 (+1.0; +12.7) 0.02 +7.8 (+1.4; +13.5) 0.02
Diabetes mellitus -0.01 (-6.0; +6.0) 0.99 -0.6 (-6.8; +5.6) 0.85
Cerebro vascular disease +8.3 (+1.4; +15.1) 0.02 +7.5 (0.4; +14.7) 0.04
Parkinson’s disease c +15.3 (+4.1; +26.4) 0.008 +15.7 (+4.1; +27.5) 0.009
Dementiad +0.6 (-10.8; +9.6) 0.9 +0.007 (-10.3; +10.3) 0.99
WHODAS II total score e +0.2 (+0.04; +0.3) 0.01 +0.2 (+0.07; +0.4) 0.004
Caregivers' characteristics:     
Age in years +0.1 (-0.03; +0.2) 0.12 +0.1 (-0.004; +0.3)f 0.13
Women as primary caregiver -0.6 (-6.0; +4.8) 0.83 +0.5 (-5.0; +6.1)g 0.84
Spouse as primary caregiver +6.0 (+1.1; +10.9) 0.02 +5.8 (-0.6; +12.2) 0.08
Lack of formal education +0.1 (-4.4; +4.6) 0.96 -0.6 (-5.3; +4.1)h 0.79
Need to cut down work +0.06 (-0.7; +8.3) 0.87 +0.2 (-0.7; +1.1) 0.61
Availability of additional caregiver -1.3 (-5.8; +3.2) 0.57 -1.0 (-5.7; +3.8) 0.68
Hours/week of informal care on ADL i +1.8 (0.2; +3.4) 0.03 +1.8 (+0.1; 3.5) 0.03
Hours/week spent on supervision +6.7 (+2.9; +10.4) 0.001 +6.3 (+2.5; +10.1) 0.001
  1. aRobust regression models with Zarit caregiver burden total score as dependent variable and the explanatory variable, presented in that row, as the only independent variable; bMultiple Robust regression models including Zarit caregiver burden total score as dependent variable, the explanatory variable, presented in that row, as the independent variable, and age, gender as well as education of caregivers as covariates; cReported as diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease and had symptoms of tremor, slowness of movement, difficulty in initiating any movements; dBased on DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition) diagnosis; eWHO Disability Assessment Scale II 12 items total score; fMultiple Robust regression model including Zarit caregiver burden total score as dependent variable and age as the independent variable, that was adjusted for gender and education of caregivers as covariates; gMultiple Robust regression models including Zarit caregiver burden total score as dependent variable and female gender as the independent variable, that was adjusted for age and education of caregivers as covariates; hMultiple Robust regression models including Zarit caregiver burden total score as dependent variable and the lack of formal education as the independent variable, that was adjusted for age and gender as covariates iTime spent in assisting the activities of daily living; Statistically significant associations with p vales < 0.05 are presented in bold.