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Table 2 Barriers and Facilitators categorised into themes (n = number of studies)

From: A systematic review of barriers to and facilitators of the use of evidence by policymakers

Seen as barrier Factor Seen as facilitator
85 Contact and collaboration 98
  8 Collaboration 49  
  42 Timing/opportunity 24  
  8 Relationship with policymakers 39  
  8 Relationship with researchers/info staff 37  
  8 Contact with researchers/info staff 31  
  9 Contact with policymakers 30  
  2 Other 1  
92 Organisation and resources 99
  63 Availability and access to research/improved dissemination 65  
  25 Costs 11  
  3 Managerial support (practical) 22  
  11 Professional bodies 15  
  11 Material resources available 12  
  14 Staff or personnel resources 10  
  3 Managerial will 5  
  9 Staff turnover/continuity of employment 3  
  9 Other 9  
85 Research and researcher characteristics 95
  54 Clarity/relevance/reliability of research findings 46  
  18 Format of research findings 26  
  9 Importance of research findings 10  
  25 Other 32  
62 Policymaker characteristics 69
  26 Policymaker research skills 22  
  24 Policymaker research awareness 10  
  13 Political support (will) 21  
  4 Political support (practical) 12  
  12 Practitioner research skills 6  
  3 Practitioner research awareness 2  
  6 Other 11  
28   Policy characteristics   33
  6 Guidelines or policy statement 9  
  9 Importance of policy 11  
  5 Legal or legislative support 3  
  26 Other pressures on policy 5  
  4 Other 4  
10   Other   1
  9 Consumer-related barrier 0  
  1 Other 1  
105 All factors (total) 124