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Table 5 Barriers to evidence use: summary of types by theme

From: Barriers and facilitators to evidence-use in program management: a systematic review of the literature

Barrier theme Types of barrier
Information • Irrelevance of research
• Unclear definition of evidence
• Negative perceptions of research
• Limited access to information
• Mismatch of research to complex reality
• Time required to produce research
• Excess quantity of information
Organization (Structure and Process) • Time limitations
• Lack of internal research resources
• Human resource constraints
• Financial constraints
• Lack of data and systems
• Deficient planning processes
• Absence of processes
• Poor support from senior management
• Rigid program silos
• Competing priorities
• Poor communication
Organization (Culture) • Decision-making
• Crisis management
• Resistance to change
• Politically influenced decisions
• Challenging the promotion of evidence use
Individual Skills • Research literacy
• Research utilization
• Management
Interaction • Decision-maker/researcher gap
• Mutual mistrust