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Table 2 Descriptive characteristics of participants at baseline (T1) and comparison analyses according to healthcare service utilization (N = 243)

From: Determinants and patterns of service utilization and recourse to professionals for mental health reasons

    Total sample (N=243) No utilization (n=130) Utilization (n=113) P value (chi-square test)
  [n/Mean(% SD)] [n/Mean(% SD)] [n/Mean(% SD)]  
Predisposing factors Age [Mean(SD)] 43.3 (12.8) 42.2 (13.6) 44.5 (11.8) .165
  Gender [n(%)] Female 160 (65.8) 73 (56.2) 87 (77.0) .001
   Male 83 (34.2) 57 (43.8) 26 (23.0)  
  Education [n(%)] High school or less 78 (32.1) 53 (40.8) 25 (22.1) .002
   Beyond high school 165 (67.9) 77 (59.2) 88 (77.9)  
  Self-perception of physical health [n(%)] Poor or fair 42 (17.3) 25 (19.2) 17 (15.0) .073
   Good 68 (28.0) 42 (32.3) 26 (23.0)  
   Excellent or very good 133 (54.7) 63 (48.5) 70 (61.9)  
  Self-perception of mental health [n(%)] Poor or fair 37 (15.2) 28 (21.5) 9 (8.0) 0.001
   Good 76 (31.3) 43 (33.1) 33 (29.2)  
   Excellent or very good 130 (53.5) 59 (45.4) 71 (62.8)  
  Importance attributed to spirituality [n(%)] 141 (58.0) 75 (57.7) 66 (58.4) .910
  Number of children in the household [Mean(SD)] 0.5 (0.9) 0.5 (1.0) 0.5 (0.9) .740
  Problems with the law in past 12 months 11 (4.5) 3 (2.3) 8 (7.1) .090
Enabling factors Household income [Mean(SD)] 49552.1 (41246.8) 46105.7 (32878.9) 53517.0 (49002.7) .167
  Personal income [Mean(SD)] 28215.1 (21927.0) 24845.7 (17118.1) 32091.4 (25942.6) .014
  Quality of life score [Mean(SD)] 95.2 (17.7) 97.4 (16.6) 92.7 (18.6) .040
  Neighbourhood characteristics scores Neighborhood physical condition [Mean(SD)] 43.6 (12.3) 42.5 (12.2) 44.8 (12.4) .136
   Neighborhood disorder [Mean(SD)] 3.9 (1.4) 3.9 (1.4) 3.9 (1.4) .921
   Community involvement [Mean(SD)] 0.8 (1.0) 0.7 (1.1) 0.9 (1.0) .173
   Resident disempowerment [Mean(SD)] 12.8 (6.2) 13.6 (6.2) 11.9 (6.0) .036
  Social support score [Mean(SD)] 77.8 (10.8) 78.3 (11.0) 77.2 (10.5) .454
Needs Mental disorders (MD) in past 12 months Major depression [n(%)] 147 (60.5) 66 (50.8) 81 (71.7) .001
   Mania [n(%)] 13 (5.3) 6 (4.6) 7 (6.2) .587
   Panic disorder [n(%)] 17 (7.0) 7 (5.4) 10 (8.8) .296
   Social phobia [n(%)] 41 (16.9) 21 (16.2) 20 (17.7) .748
   Agoraphobia [n(%)] 7 (2.9) 1 (0.8) 6 (5.3) .069
   Alcohol dependence [n(%)] 44 (18.1) 30 (23.1) 14 (12.4) .033
   Drug dependence [n(%)] 28 (11.5) 18 (13.8) 10 (8.8) .227
   Post-traumatic stress disorder [n(%)] 18 (7.4) 8 (6.2) 10 (8.8) .426
  Number of MD in past 12 months [Mean(SD)] 1.3 (0.6) 1.2 (0.5) 1.4 (0.8) .025
  Emotional problems in past 12 months [n(%)] 187 (77.0) 80 (61.5) 107 (94.7) < .001
  Problems related to mental health in past 12 months [n(%)] 133 (54.7) 42 (32.3) 91 (80.5) < .001
  Victim of violence in past 12 months [n(%)] 25 (10.3) 13 (10.0) 12 (10.6) .874
  Aggressive behaviours in past 12 months [n(%)] 39 (16.0) 25 (19.2) 14 (12.4) .150
  Psychological distress score [Mean(SD)] 15.3 (7.5) 14.4 (7.2) 16.5 (7.8) .030