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Table 3 Standardized prevalence rates of ADEs for England, Germany and the USA

From: International prevalence of adverse drug events in hospitals: an analysis of routine data from England, Germany, and the USA

   England* Germany USA*
Category Definition Rate in % [95% CI]
A Caused by a drug or other substance 0.99 [0.99–1.00] 3.14 [3.10–3.17] 4.43 [4.42–4.45]
B Poisoning by or harmful use of a drug or other substance 1.21 [1.20–1.22] 0.49 [0.48–0.51] 0.63 [0.63–0.64]
C ADE very likely 1.07 [1.07–1.08] 1.14 [1.11–1.16] 0.86 [0.85–0.87]
A-C   3.22 [3.20–3.23] 4.78 [4.73–4.83] 5.64 [5.63–5.66]
  1. *Inpatient stays were counted once within each category. The rates were adjusted for the distribution of the following data elements in the DRG statistic using a direct standardization: operation (yes/no), sex (male/female), emergency (yes/no), age at admission (≤ 53 years/> 53 years). The rates were further adjusted for the mean number of secondary diagnoses in Germany.
  2. Inpatients stays were counted twice in categories A and B if the ADE occurred in each of the sub-categories. Otherwise, they were counted once. To aggregate the initial results, which were differentiated according to principal and secondary diagnoses, the total number of inpatient stays for categories A, B, and C was multiplied by a factor of 0.88.