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Table 7 Linear regression model

From: Patient safety culture in a large teaching hospital in Riyadh: baseline assessment, comparative analysis and opportunities for improvement

  Frequency of events reported Perception of patient safety
  Beta (Standard error) P-value* Beta (Standard error) P-value*
Patient safety culture composites     
 Supervisor/Manager expectations & actions promoting patient safety -0.08 (0.06) 0.178 0.09 (0.03) 0.008
 Organizational learning and continuous improvement 0.24 (0.08) 0.002 0.20 (0.04) <0.001
 Teamwork within units 0.04 (0.07) 0.506 0.09 (0.03) 0.007
 Communication openness -0.04 (0.05) 0.440 -0.06 (0.03) 0.013
 Feedback and communications about error 0.43 (0.06) <0.001 0.002 (0.03) 0.955
 Non-punitive response to error -0.02 (0.05) 0.715 0.006 (0.02) 0.817
 Staffing -0.17 (0.05) 0.002 0.13 (0.03) <0.001
 Hospital management support for patient safety 0.11 (0.06) 0.066 0.17 (0.03) <0.001
 Hospital handoffs & transitions 0.06 (0.05) 0.237 0.08 (0.03) 0.004
 Teamwork across hospital units -0.15 (0.07) 0.031 0.006 (0.04) 0.868
Gender     
 Male 0.05 (0.10) 0.650 0.02 (0.05) 0.686
 Female 0   0  
Age     
 Less than 30 years of age 0   0  
 Between 30 and 45 -0.09 (0.09) 0.337 -0.10 (0.05) 0.036
 Between 46 and 55 0.08 (0.15) 0.572 -0.15 (0.08) 0.046
 Aged above 55 0.20 (0.20) 0.317 -0.21 (0.10) 0.046
Experience at the hospital     
 Less than 1 year 0   0  
 1 to 5 years 0.03 (0.10) 0.791 -0.11 (0.05) 0.047
 6 to 10 years -0.02 (0.13) 0.867 -0.06 (0.07) 0.373
 11 to 15 years -0.01 (0.16) 0.927 -0.04 (0.08) 0.633
 16 to 20 years 0.12 (0.18) 0.510 -0.004 (0.09) 0.962
 More or equal to 21 years -0.07 (0.20) 0.741 -0.04 (0.10) 0.649
Highest degree     
 High school level or below 0   0  
 Diploma level -0.19 (0.31) 0.528 0.06 (0.15) 0.691
 Baccalaureate degree -0.23 (0.31) 0.446 0.08 (0.15) 0.587
 Masters degree -0.01 (0.34) 0.966 -0.10 (0.17) 0.561
 Doctorate degree 0.12 (0.40) 0.758 -0.07 (0.20) 0.711
 Other -0.54 (0.36) 0.134 0.05 (0.18) 0.769
Position at the hospital     
 Administration/Management 0.12 (0.23) 0.599 -0.05 (0.12) 0.701
 Attending/Staff physician -0.26 (0.28) 0.337 0.05 (0.14) 0.736
 Dietician -0.22 (0.38) 0.565 -0.33 (0.20) 0.102
 Infection control practitioner/Coordinator/Nurse 0.21 (0.33) 0.53 -0.05 (0.17) 0.791
 Patient care assistant/Hospital aide/Care partner 0.58 (0.29) 0.045 -0.11 (0.15) 0.479
 Pharmacist 0.19 (0.29) 0.511 0.11 (0.16) 0.477
 Physical, occupational, speech therapist -0.22 (0.26) 0.393 -0.29 (0.13) 0.029
 Physician assistant/Nurse practitioner -0.05 (0.48) 0.925 -0.31 (0.25) 0.219
 Registered nurse 0.29 (0.15) 0.06 -0.32 (0.07) <0.001
 Resident physician/Physician in training -0.71 (0.30) 0.019 -0.13 (0.16) 0.408
 Respiratory therapist -0.19 (0.62) 0.759 -0.59 (0.33) 0.072
 Quality staff -0.18 (0.39) 0.638 -0.19 (0.19) 0.324
 Unit assistant/Clerk/Secretary 0.24 (0.23) 0.298 -0.29 (0.12) 0.019
 Technician (e.g., EKG, Lab, Radiology) 0.01 (0.17) 0.934 -0.15 (0.09) 0.104
 Other 0   0  
Interaction with patients     
 No 0   0  
 Yes 0.06 (0.11) 0.567 0.004 (0.06) 0.939
Hospital size     
 Small 0   0  
 Large 0.09 (0.08) 0.268 -0.05 (0.04) 0.273
 N 1008   1001  
  1. *Bold and italicized font is to refer to statistically significant p-values.