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Table 6 Generalized estimating equations

From: Patient safety culture in a large teaching hospital in Riyadh: baseline assessment, comparative analysis and opportunities for improvement

  Patient safety grade Number of events reported
  OR (95% CI) P-value* OR (95% CI) P-value*
Patient safety culture composites     
 Supervisor/Manager expectations & actions promoting patient safety 1.06 (1.05 - 1.08) <0.001 0.90 (0.71 - 1.16) 0.430
 Organizational learning and continuous improvement 1.91 (1.63 - 2.25) <0.001 0.89 (0.81 - 0.98) 0.018
 Teamwork within units 1.34 (1.14 - 1.59) 0.001 0.88 (0.84 - 0.92) 0.000
 Communication openness 1.25 (1.20 - 1.31) <0.001 1.05 (0.82 - 1.34) 0.710
 Feedback and communications about error 1.44 (1.33 - 1.56) <0.001 1.50 (1.49 - 1.51) <0.001
 Non-punitive response to error 1.13 (1.07 - 1.20) <0.001 1.08 (1.04 - 1.13) <0.001
 Staffing 1.30 (1.28 - 1.32) <0.001 0.76 (0.70 - 0.84) <0.001
 Hospital management support for patient safety 2.80 (2.55 - 3.08) <0.001 0.83 (0.71 - 0.97) 0.021
 Hospital handoffs & transitions 1.09 (0.94 - 1.26) 0.253 1.05 (0.95 - 1.16) 0.355
 Teamwork across hospital units 1.13 (1.09 - 1.17) <0.001 0.94 (0.83 - 1.06) 0.328
Gender     
 Male 1   1  
 Female 0.50 (0.39 - 0.65) <0.001 0.75 (0.62 - 0.91) 0.003
Age     
 Less than 30 years of age 1   1  
 Between 30 and 45 0.91 (0.89 - 0.93) <0.001 1.43 (0.96 - 2.13) 0.076
 Between 46 and 55 0.74 (0.48 - 1.16) 0.188 1.23 (0.68 - 2.22) 0.488
 Aged above 55 0.66 (0.49 - 0.89) 0.006 1.11 (0.42 - 2.98) 0.830
Experience at the hospital     
 Less than 1 year 1   1  
 1 to 5 years 1.01 (0.75 - 1.36) 0.928 0.42 (0.37 - 0.48) 0.928
 6 to 10 years 1.13 (1.09 - 1.17) <0.001 0.45 (0.37 - 0.54) <0.001
 11 to 15 years 1.13 (1.11 - 1.15) <0.001 0.28 (0.26 - 0.31) <0.001
 16 to 20 years 1.31 (1.05 - 1.64) 0.018 0.20 (0.12 - 0.32) 0.018
 More or equal to 21 years 0.88 (0.56 - 1.38) 0.578 0.27 (0.16 - 0.48) 0.578
Highest degree     
 High school level or below 1   1  
 Diploma level 0.29 (0.24 - 0.35) <0.001 18.88 (14.74 - 24.19) <0.001
 Baccalaureate degree 0.23 (0.22 - 0.25) <0.001 26.13 (24.34 - 28.05) <0.001
 Masters degree 0.13 (0.09 - 0.17) <0.001 47.61 (30.17 - 75.04) <0.001
 Doctorate degree 0.21 (0.09 - 0.50) <0.001 56.09 (7.55 - 416.96) <0.001
 Other 0.24 (0.16 - 0.37) <0.001 9.57 (7.86 - 11.66) <0.001
Position at the hospital     
 Administration/Management 1   1  
 Attending/Staff physician 0.67 (0.57 - 0.79) <0.001 0.37 (0.22 - 0.62) <0.001
 Dietician 0.09 (0.02 - 0.35) 0.001 0.74 (0.43 - 1.27) 0.273
 Infection control practitioner/Coordinator/Nurse 0.22 (0.08 - 0.64) 0.006 0.91 (0.48 - 1.73) 0.781
 Patient care assistant/Hospital Aide/Care partner 0.85 (0.30 - 2.35) 0.748   
 Pharmacist 0.37 (0.06 - 2.16) 0.270 1.32 (1.06 - 1.65) 0.015
 Physical, occupational, speech therapist 0.32 (0.08 - 1.19) 0.088 0.15 (0.12 - 0.18) <0.001
 Physician assistant/Nurse practitioner    0.68 (0.68 - 0.69) <0.001
 Registered nurse 0.35 (0.13 - 0.93) 0.034 0.86 (0.79 - 0.94) 0.001
 Resident physician/Physician in training 0.29 (0.12 - 0.75) 0.010 1.14 (0.48 - 2.71) 0.770
 Respiratory therapist 0.13 (0.06 - 0.27) <0.001 1.58 (1.3 - 1.91) <0.001
 Quality staff 0.15 (0.03 - 0.65) 0.011 1.23 (0.49 - 3.06) 0.656
 Unit assistant/Clerk/Secretary 0.32 (0.20 - 0.51) <0.001 0.17 (0.13 - 0.21) <0.001
 Technician (e.g., EKG, Lab, Radiology) 0.95 (0.62 - 1.45) 0.803 0.32 (0.14 - 0.75) 0.009
 Other 0.48 (0.11 - 2.06) 0.324 0.26 (0.11 - 0.59) 0.001
Interaction with patients     
 No 1.08 (0.79 - 1.46) 0.633 1.18 (0.97 - 1.43) 0.102
 Yes 1   1  
Hospital size     
 Small 1.58 (1.25 - 1.99) <0.001 0.62 (0.60 - 0.65) <0.001
 Large 1   1  
 N 1005   1029  
  1. *Bold and italicized font is to refer to statistically significant p-values.