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Table 3 Results of multilevel regression analysis of individual care time in nursing homes

From: Variations in levels of care between nursing home patients in a public health care system

  (Total) individual care Personal care Assistance with meals
Model 1:    
Variance-nursing home level τ ^ 0 0.064 (0.037-0.110) 0.075 (0.042-0.137) 0.142 (0.082-0.246)
Variance-individual level σ 2 ̂ 0.204 (0.188-0.221) 0.475 (0.438-0.516) 0.414 (0.382-0.450)
ICC 24.0% 13.7% 25.5%
Model 2:    
Variance-nursing home level τ 0 ̂ 0.058 (0.032-0.106) 0.061 (0.031-0.122) 0.113 (0.060-0.215)
Variance-individual level σ 2 ̂ 0.204 (0.188-0.221) 0.476 (0.438-0.516) 0.414 (0.382-0.450)
ICC 22.1% 11.4% 21.4%
Model 3:    
Intercept γ ̂ 0.31 (-0.70-1.33) -3.39*** (-4.60- -2.18) 0.71 (-0.80-2.23)
Nursing home characteristics:    
Extra care sheltered housing δ 1 ̂ () 0.02 (0.02) (-0.14-0.18) 0.10 (0.10) (-0.10-0.31) 0.13 (0.13) (-0.12-0.38)
Private ownership δ 2 ̂ ( δ 2 ' ̂ ) 0.27** (0.30) (0.03-0.52) 0.21 (0.23) (-0.05-0.47) 0.04 (0.03) (-0.31-0.39)
Nursing home size δ 3 ̂ 2.73** (0.04-5.42) 1.13 (-1.92-4.18) 6.09** (2.14-10.03)
College/university degree δ 4 ̂ ( δ 4 ' ̂ ) 0.65 (0.66) (-0.41-1.71) 0.72 (0.74) (-0.41-1.85) -0.23 (-0.41) (-1.74-1.29)
Upper secondary education δ 5 ̂ ( δ 5 ' ̂ ) 0.24 (0.16) (-0.60-1.08) 0.45 (0.41) (-0.44-1.33) -0.51 (-0.50) (-1.69-0.68)
Case mix δ 6 ̂ -0.29** (-0.49- -0.09) -0.16 (-0.38-0.06) -0.25* (-0.54-0.05)
Individual characteristics:    
ADL-disability θ 1 ̂ 0.73*** (0.56-0.90) 1.95*** (1.69-2.21) -0.23 (-0.52-0.06)
IADL-disability θ 2 ̂ 0.31*** (0.18-0.44) 0.64*** (0.44-0.85) 0.15 (-0.08-0.39)
Cognitive impairment θ 3 ̂ 0.47*** (0.31-0.64) 0.21* (-0.04-0.47) 0.46** (0.17-0.74)
Vision and hearing V&H θ 4 ̂ -0.28** (-0.45- -0.10) -0.41** (-0.67- -0.15) -0.20 (-0.50-0.10)
ADL -IADL θ 12 ̂ -0.08*** (-0.12- -0.04) -0.26*** (-0.32- -0.21) 0.01 (-0.05-0.08)
ADL - Cognitive θ 13 ̂ -0.04*** (-0.07- -0.02) -0.07*** (-0.11- -0.04) 0.06** (0.01-0.10)
ADL -V&H θ 14 ̂ 0.02 (-0.01-0.05) -0.03 (-0.07-0.01) 0.10*** (0.06-0.15)
IADL-Cognitive θ 23 ̂ -0.06** (-0.09- -0.02) 0.00 (-0.06-0.05) -0.06* (-0.12-0.01)
IADL-V&H θ 24 ̂ 0.07** (0.02-0.12) 0.10** (0.03-0.18) 0.06 (-0.02-0.15)
Cognitive-V&H θ 34 ̂ -0.03 (-0.06-0.01) 0.01 (-0.04-0.06) -0.13*** (-0.18- -0.07)
Dementia/Alzheimer β 31 ̂ ( β 31 ' ̂ ) 0.03 (0.03) (-0.02-0.07) 0.06** (0.07) (0.00-0.13) -0.02 (-0.02) (-0.09-0.05)
Stroke β 32 ̂ ( β 32 ' ̂ ) 0.01 (0.01) (-0.04-0.06) 0.09** (0.09) (0.01-0.16) -0.10** (-0.10) (-0.18- -0.02)
Diabetes β 33 ̂ ( β 33 ' ̂ ) 0.05 (0.05) (-0.01-0.12) 0.01 (0.01) (-0.08-0.11) 0.00 (0.00) (-0.11-0.10)
Private care <3 hours β 21 ̂ 0.02 (0.02) (-0.03-0.07) 0.01 (0.01) (-0.06-0.08) -0.09** (-0.09) (-0.18- -0.01)
Private care 3 < hours β 22 ̂ ( β 22 ' ̂ ) 0.17** (0.18) (0.05-0.28) 0.01 (0.00) (-0.16-0.18) 0.22** (0.24) (0.02-0.41)
age 80–89 β 11 ̂ ( β 11 ' ̂ ) -0.04 (-0.04) (-0.08-0.01) -0.01 (-0.01) (-0.08-0.05) 0.02 (0.02) (-0.05-0.10)
age above 90 β 12 ̂ ( β 12 ' ̂ ) -0.04 (-0.04) (-0.10-0.01) 0.02 (0.02) (-0.06-0.09) 0.00 (0.00) (-0.08-0.09)
Model fit Statistics:    
Restricted log. Likelihood Model 3 -339.8 -750.8 -900.4
  1. Estimated values are expressed with ^.
  2. ***p ≤ 0.001 **p ≤ 0.05 *p ≤ 0.1 (95% Confidence Interval).