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Table 4 Within and between-group change from workshop to end of study (15 months)

From: Can community retail pharmacist and diabetes expert support facilitate insulin initiation by family physicians? Results of the AIM@GP randomized controlled trial

  Group Descriptive statistics Mean (SD) Change at 15 months: Within-group p-value Change at 15 months: Between groups
   Workshop Final Adjusted mean (SE) 95% CI Between-group p-value
HbA1c*,% I (n = 73) 7.12 (0.42) 7.09 (0.41) 0.34 0.02 (0.04) (−0.05 to 0.09) 0.63
C (n = 76) 7.20 (0.52) 7.15 (0.51) 0.13    
% patients HbA1c ≤ 7.0% I (n = 73) 58.40 (16.20) 58.68 (15.40) 0.76 −1.22 (1.30) (−3.78 to 1.35) 0.35
C (n = 76) 55.95 (15.65) 57.58 (16.12) 0.15    
FPG level in mmol/L I (n = 71) 7.86 (0.67) 7.78 (0.68) 0.13 0.01 (0.07) (−0.13 to 0.15) 0.85
C (n = 70) 7.89 (0.69) 7.82 (0.68) 0.22    
% patients prescribed OAD I (n = 73) 80.87 (10.83) 83.32 (9.98) < 0.001 0.87 (0.65) (−0.42 to 2.16) 0.18
C (n = 76) 79.24 (12.06) 81.12 (11.14) < 0.001    
OAD score§ I (n = 73) 1.32 (0.20) 1.37 (0.21) < 0.001 0.01 (0.02) (−0.03 to 0.04) 0.65
C (n = 76) 1.38 (0.21) 1.41 (0.24) 0.02    
% patients prescribed insulin I (n = 73) 11.53 (8.93) 17.14 (10.64) < 0.001 −1.06 (0.88) (−2.80 to 0.69) 0.23
C (n = 76) 11.53 (8.51) 18.38 (10.82) < 0.001    
Insulin daily dose (units) I (n = 61) 47.91 (21.24) 53.64 (22.71) < 0.01 5.96 (2.83) (0.35 to 11.56) 0.04
C (n = 57) 57.19 (26.21) 54.94 (23.65) 0.30    
Intensification of diabetes management** I (n = 73) -- 31.59 (14.17) -- −0.29 (2.35) (−4.93 to 4.34) 0.90
C (n = 76) -- 32.80 (14.91) --    
  1. Note: CI = confidence interval, ANCOVA = analysis of covariance with treatment, stratum, and pooled site effects and the corresponding baseline value as covariate used for the change from baseline (difference: endpoint-baseline) with p-values based on actual data.
  2. *HbA1c – glycosylated hemoglobin.
  3. FPG – fasting plasma glucose.
  4. OAD – oral anti-diabetes drug.
  5. §OAD score = sum of all OADs prescribed; OAD ½ to maximum dose = 1 OAD.
  6. These are between-group results where change from workshop to 15 months was compared between intervention and control groups using ANCOVA, treatment effect is adjusted for baseline effect and pooled site effect.
  7. **Intensification of diabetes management – Increased dose of OAD or insulin, increased OAD score, or the addition of insulin; Intensification is a one-time post workshop variable, therefore no within group differences.