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Table 5 Linguistic, semantic and context related deviations in final translation of the ACT

From: Translating and testing the Alberta context tool for use among nurses in Swedish elder care

Description of translational issue (Swe for Sweden, Ca for Canada) Type of issue Discussion (Swe for Sweden, Ca for Canada) Final decision
Swe: Suggest calling the team ‘nursing team’ in Swedish since there are no other teams in long term care Context Ca: The survey includes questions about interactions with physicians, therapists, etc. ‘Nursing’ removed
Ca: ‘with respect to’ not equivalent to ‘starting point’ Raised as semantic, revealed as linguistic Swe: the word used for ‘starting point’ is equivalent to ‘think of’ Agreed on ‘think of’
Swe: ‘role’ has two meanings, the equivalent of function is the closest Semantic Ca: the item is mainly about ensuring the questionnaire is filled out by the target group for the survey and not another health care provider Agreed on ‘function’
Ca: Number of shifts and number of hours per shift differs between Ca and Swe Context Swe: Standard shifts are morning (7.00 -8.00, finishing 13.00 - 16.00), afternoon (start at 11–15, end at 19–21) and night shift Agreed to country specific groups
Swe: One word equals manager or head or boss Linguistic Ca: Manager needs to be specified as home manager Agreed
Ca: ‘Difficult to hear’ needs a better translation Linguistic Swe: Suggest equivalent to ‘unpleasant to hear’ Agreed
Swe: Leave out the word ‘acknowledges’ since no Swedish equivalent works in the context Linguistic Ca: This does not impact on meaning Agreed
Ca: There is a difference between solving and resolving Raised as semantic, revealed as linguistic Swe: There is one word only, meaning solving and resolving Agreed to use suggested word
Swe: There is no equivalent to ‘best practice’ Semantic Ca: Suggested ‘best possible care’ all right Agreed
Ca: Having two words separated by a slash makes items double barrelled Linguistic Swe: Suggest ‘team’ rather than ‘group’ to equal team and ‘relatives’ to equal family Agreed
Ca: Aim for the notion of ‘last’ typical month Semantic Swe: Suggest we use ‘last ordinary’ Agreed
Ca: ‘attended’ is different from ‘participated’ in English Raised as semantic, revealed as linguistic Swe: There is one word meaning both ‘participated’ and ‘attended’ Agreed
Swe: There is no equivalent to respiratory therapist in Sweden Context Ca: OK to exclude Agreed
Swe: ‘Bedside teaching’ does not exist in elder care but suggest ‘Informal teaching in direct nursing care situations’ Linguistic Ca: OK Agreed
Ca: ‘Routinely’ needs an equivalent Linguistic Swe: No exact word works in this context but suggest using ‘generally’ Agreed
Ca: Does ‘those assigned responsible’ equate to ‘positions of authority’? Semantic Swe: Yes Agreed
Ca: ‘comfortable’ needs an equivalent Linguistic Swe: ‘Comfortable’ can be used even if it means applying informal language in the item Agreed
Swe: ‘team exchanges’ needs to be specified as ‘information exchange’ to clarify that it’s not just any exchange (e.g., recipes) Semantic Ca: OK Agreed
Swe: The word for library is better understood if in definite form or to write it in the plural Linguistic Ca: Please use definite form Agreed
Ca: Please provide equivalent to ‘best day’ Semantic Swe: ‘best situation achievable’ is the closest Agreed
Ca: Please provide equivalent to ‘private space’ Semantic Swe: Suggest using a word indicating both ‘separate’ and ‘private’ Agreed
Ca: Scale should range from ‘Strongly disagree’ to ‘Strongly agree’ Linguistic Swe: Suggest we use the standard Likert scale wording applied in Swedish Agreed
Swe: If phrasing How often do you…’ in Swedish in this context, it reads ‘How often do you have…’ Linguistic Ca: OK Agreed
Swe: Does ‘care of plan for resident’ equal ‘resident’s care plan’? Semantic Ca: Yes it does Agreed to translate as ‘resident’s care plan’