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Table 5 User’s characteristics and their relation with experiences of responsiveness domains 1

From: Assessing responsiveness of health care services within a health insurance scheme in Nigeria: users’ perspectives

Independent variables Prompt attention1 Dignity1 Communication1
  Coef. SE p-value Impact Coef. SE p-value Impact Coef. SE p-value Impact
Type of facility visited             
Private (ref.)             
Public −0.68 0.14 <0.001 0.51 −0.67 0.14 <0.001 0.51 −1.31a 0.63 0.039 0.27
          −0.02b 0.25 0.923 1.02
          0.56c 0.17 <0.001 1.55
          0.60d 0.16 <0.001 1.57
Age             
≥40 years (ref.)             
<40 years −0.06 0.14 0.693 0.94 −0.01 0.15 0.968 0.99 0.02 0.15 0.895 1.02
Sex             
Female (ref.)             
Male 0.38 0.13 0.004 1.47 0.27 0.13 0.042 1.32 0.21 0.13 0.123 1.23
Educational Status             
Higher education (ref.)             
Lower education 0.20 0.15 0.217 1.22 −0.33 0.16 0.033 0.71 −0.05 0.16 0.759 0.95
Monthly income level             
>187 US dollars (ref.)             
≤187 US dollars 0.24 0.16 0.140 1.27 0.06 0.16 0.691 1.06 0.36 0.16 0.029 1.43
Type of marital status             
Others (ref.)             
Polygamy −0.07 0.15 0.678 0.94 0.04 0.17 0.818 1.04 −0.30 0.16 0.063 0.74
Enrolment duration             
>2 years (ref.)             
≤2 years 0.54a 0.59 0.365 1.71 0.18 0.14 0.216 1.19 0.24a 0.55 0.665 0.99
  0.06b 0.30 0.837 1.06      0.31b 0.26 0.964 1.27
  0.44c 0.17 0.012 1.55      0.35c 0.18 <0.001 1.42
  −0.07d 0.17 0.684 0.93      0.63d 0.16 0.033 1.89
12 months visits to HCPs*             
>3 visits (ref.)             
1–3 visits −0.55a 0.55 0.320 0.58 0.23 0.14 0.110 1.26 −0.32a 0.46 0.484 0.73
  −1.12b 0.37 0.003 0.33      −0.05b 0.26 0.849 0.95
  −0.45c 0.17 0.008 0.63      −0.66c 0.18 <0.001 0.51
  −0.16d 0.17 0.360 0.85      0.12d 0.17 0.489 1.13
Referral after enrolment             
No (ref.)             
Yes −0.05a 0.49 0.918 0.95 0.88a 0.46 0.053 2.42 −1.28a 0.52 0.013 0.28
  0.28b 0.29 0.329 1.33 0.39b 0.29 0.170 1.48 −0.31b 0.25 0.220 0.74
  0.49c 0.16 0.002 1.57 −0.06c 0.18 0.729 0.94 −0.73c 0.16 <0.001 0.48
  0.55d 0.17 0.001 1.61 −0.42d 0.15 0.006 0.66 −0.84d 0.16 <0.001 0.43
Constant 4.17a 0.59 <0.001 64.72 3.27a 0.31 <0.001 26.31 5.28a 0.78 <0.001 196.18
  3.39b 0.40 <0.001 29.62 2.56b 0.26 <0.001 12.95 2.22b 0.32 <0.001 9.24
  1.18c 0.23 <0.001 3.27 1.60c 0.22 <0.001 4.94 1.54c 0.24 <0.001 4.67
  −0.58d 0.21 0.007 0.55 −0.24d 0.21 0.024 0.78 −0.60d 0.22 0.005 0.54
  1. *HCPs = health care providers.
  2. 1Dependent variable coding: (1) Very bad; (2) Bad; (3) Moderate; (4) Good; (5) Very good. For variables that violate the proportional odds assumption.
  3. aCoefficient for response category (1) contrasted with categories (2), (3), (4), and (5).
  4. bCoefficient for response categories (1) and (2) contrasted with categories (3), (4), and (5).
  5. cCoefficient for response categories (1), (2), and (3) contrasted with categories (4) and (5).
  6. dCoefficient for response categories (1), (2), (3), and (4) contrasted with category (5).
  7. Impact is calculated as the absolute change in odds (e |coef.|).
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