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Table 3 Time to complete medication reconciliation tasks at admission per hospital unit

From: Medication reconciliation at admission and discharge: a time and motion study

Medication reconciliation tasks Geriatrics Internal medicine
  Time (minutes)   Time (minutes)
N (%) Mean (SD) Min Max N (%) Mean (SD) Min Max
Overall 21 92.2 (44.3) 46.1 202.5 20 46.2 (21.1) 22.5 94.6
Prior to meeting the patient 19 (90.5) 29 (22.2) 6.9 91.7 20 (100.0) 16.3 (9.3) 7.1 36.8
  Reading medical chart 19 (90.5) 20.8 (18.6) 0.4 75.6 20 (100.0) 13.1 (8.1) 5.6 32.4
  Reviewing lab results 19 (90.5) 7.8 (4.3) 3.4 21.3 20 (100.0) 3.2 (1.6) 1.0 7.0
  Calculations 8 (38.1) 1 (0.6) 0.5 1.8 2 (10.0) 0.2 (0.0) 0.2 0.2
Discussion with patient a 21 (100.0) 13.4 (9.1) 0.6 31.0 20 (100.0) 5.2 (4.0) 1.1 15.5
  Introduction 21 (100.0) 4 (3.3) 0.3 11.6 19 (95.0) 1.4 (2.1) 0.1 8.3
  Community drug list 19 (90.5) 3.7 (3.3) 0.1 11.5 19 (95.0) 1.7 (1.8) 0.1 6.4
  Medication knowledge 10 (47.6) 1.9 (1.5) 0.5 5.1 4 (20.0) 0.2 (0.3) 0.1 0.6
  Medication posology 12 (57.1) 1.9 (1.6) 0.3 5.1 9 (45.0) 0.6 (0.4) 0.2 1.5
  Adherence to medication 7 (33.3) 0.8 (0.4) 0.3 1.5 4 (20.0) 0.2 (0.2) 0.0 0.5
  Over-the-counter medication 15 (71.4) 3.5 (2.5) 0.5 7.9 14 (70.0) 0.9 (0.9) 0.1 3.6
  Allergies 14 (66.7) 0.9 (0.7) 0.2 2.9 11 (55.0) 0.2 (0.2) 0.1 0.7
  Pharmacy coordinates 12 (57.1) 0.8 (0.5) 0.2 1.6 17 (85.0) 1.3 (2.7) 0.3 11.7
  Permission to exchange medication information 7 (33.3) 0.7 (0.7) 0.1 1.8 9 (45.0) 0.2 (0.3) 0.0 1.0
External research on medication history b 19 (90.5) 13 (11.9) 4.0 47.1 19 (95.0) 6.2 (4.2) 1.0 19.2
  Communication with family caregiver not in hospital 3 (14.3) 9.7 (4.8) 4.2 12.6 2 (10.0) 3.4 (3.4) 1.0 5.8
  Communication with Community Service Centre/nursing home 1 (4.8) 6.4 (.) 6.4 6.4 1 (5.0) 2.1 (.) 2.1 2.1
  Searching for pharmacy coordinates 11 (52.4) 5.1 (7.9) 0.5 28.3 11 (55.0) 3 (2.1) 0.4 5.5
  Communication with the pharmacy 19 (90.5) 8.2 (9.4) 2.5 44.8 18 (90.0) 4.2 (3.4) 0.6 13.0
Reconciliation of medications and documentation 21 (100.0) 40.8 (20.0) 19.0 85.9 20 (100.0) 18.9 (15.0) 2.5 57.1
  Clarifying discrepancies with patient 4 (19.0) 1.7 (1.2) 0.1 3.0 6 (30.0) 3.6 (3.2) 0.6 9.6
  Documenting admission medication list 21 (100.0) 32.3 (17.8) 8.8 64.3 20 (100.0) 15.3 (11.7) 2.3 45.5
  Discussing recommendations with in-hospital prescriber 8 (38.1) 3.1 (2.2) 0.6 7.3 4 (20.0) 2 (1.6) 0.7 4.3
  Documenting recommendations for in-hospital prescriber 11 (52.4) 12.3 (10.3) 0.1 38.6 9 (45.0) 2.2 (1.8) 0.4 5.4
  Other documentation 5 (23.8) 2 (1.0) 1.2 3.7 4 (20.0) 5.1 (5.0) 0.6 11.6
  1. Abbreviations: N number, SD standard deviation, Min minimum, Max maximum.
  2. aIncludes any family members that may have been present.
  3. bIncludes a communication by phone, fax, or e-mail.