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Table 3 Dimensions and items, Cronbach’s coefficient alpha, factor loadings and floor/ceiling effect for the Swedish Improvement Measurement Questionnaire (SIMQ) (n=92 when no other stated)

From: Evaluating a questionnaire to measure improvement initiatives in Swedish healthcare

  Construct SIMS Cronbach’s coefficient alpha * (+/− needed items to reach 0.7 reliability) Factor loadings calculated at each sub dimension * Factor loadings calculated at dimension level Floor/Ceiling effect (%)
Item Improvement Effectiveness Outcome (3 items) 0.67 (+1)    
22 Progress satisfaction    0.86 1 / 21
23 Progress meeting expectations    0.77 2 / 4
24 Improvement attains organizational goals    0.72 2 / 27
Item Internal Improvement processes (24 items) 0.72 (−1)    
  Improvement Uncertainty (2 items) 0.28 ^^    
2 Difficulty to know improvement steps   0.77 0.26 0 / 1
7 Frequency difficulty problems arise   0.77 0.39 1 / 46
35 Resource Scarcity (5 items) 0.76 (−1)    
a Competition for finances   0.73 0.20 4 / 46
b Competition for materials   0.75 0.19 1 / 52
c Competition for management attention   0.68 0.34 5 / 34
d Competition for personnel   0.81 0.48 10 / 24
e Competition for time   0.62 0.19 22 / 4
  Standardization of Procedures (1 item) *    
3 Details of rules and procedures   * 0.49 1 / 3
6 Decision Influence (4 items ) 0.71 (0)    
a Deciding on improvement goals (n=91)   0.83 0.65 0 / 38
b Deciding on work to be done (n=90)   0.88 0.59 0 / 39
c Deciding on funding (n=64)   0.57 0.11 42 / 4
d Deciding on personnel recruitment (n=71)   0.73 0.22 23 / 14
  Expectations of Rewards and Sanctions ** 0.34 ^^    
  Individual level (2 items) 0.60 ( +1)    
15b Chance of individual reward   0.85 0.41 0 / 46
16b Chance of individual reprimand   0.85 0.35 0 / 51
  Group level (2 items) 0.34 ^^    
15a Chance of group reward   0.78 0.57 10 / 12
16a Chance of group reprimand   0.78 0.02 29 / 2
  Improvement Group Leadership (5 items) ^ 0.66 (+1) (0.76 (−1)) ^    
10 Initiative encouraged   0.80 0.60 1 / 40
11 Members clear about responsibilities   0.52 0.53 0 / 41
12 Emphasis on task   0.88 0.66 1 / 42
13 Leader puts trust in members   0.81 0.61 0 / 55
21 Clear feedback   0.22 0.48 2 / 19
  Freedom to Express Doubts (1 item) *    
14 Freedom to “rock the boat”   * 0.14 2 / 65
  Learning Encouragement (2 items) 0.23 ^ ^    
33 Failure not a career blight   0.75 0.22 0 / 34
34 Learning a high organizational priority   0.75 0.37 2 / 5
  1. * In sub-dimension with only one item no factor analyses or Cronbach' s alpha are calculated.
  2. ** This subcategory is divided into two because of its divergence.
  3. ^ Only four items scale, item 21 deleted.
  4. ^^ Sub-dimensions with Cronbach' s alpha below 0.6 no items needed to reach 0.7 reliability are calculated; due to their divergence this is not useful.