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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: Pharmacist care and the management of coronary heart disease: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials

Source; country Study setting Study design, duration Sample size (intervention/control) Study participants; mean Age Key components of pharmacist interventions Intervention frequency Description of usual care Outcomes extracted
Calvert [14], 2012; US In hospital and community pharmacy RCT, 6 months 143 (71/72) CAD patients (UA or AMI; or ≥50% coronary occlusion on cardiac catheterization; or prior PTCA or CABG); 62 years Focused medication counseling performed by the hospital study pharmacist, who identified and addressed barriers to medication adherence. A pocket medication card, a list of tips for remembering to take medications, and a pillbox were provided. Discharge medications were shared with the community pharmacist. The community pharmacist monitored for problems with adherence and communicated issues back to the patient and the patient’s care team Every 6 weeks Routine discharge counseling performed by the patient-care nurse and a letter/discharge summary from the hospital physician to the community physician Medication adherence
The MEDMAN study [15], 2007; England Community pharmacy RCT, 12 months 1493 (980/513) CHD patients (previous MI, angina, CABG and/or PTCA); 69 years Consultations of therapy, medication compliance, lifestyle and social support were provided by the community pharmacist and recommendations were recorded and sent to the GP, who returned annotated copies to the pharmacists. Depending on pharmacist-determined patient need Usual care Medication adherence and BP control
Faulkner [16], 2000; US Outpatient clinic RCT, 2 years 30 (15/15) Patients 7 ~ 30 days after PTCA or CABG and baseline fasting LDL-C >130 mg/dl (3.3 mmol/L); 63 years Pharmacist telephoned patients, emphasized on the importance of therapy, asked patients about when and where prescriptions were filled, how they paid for their prescriptions, potential side effects, overall well-being, and specific reasons for noncompliance when applicable. Every week for 12 weeks Counseling of appropriate use of the drugs and dietary instruction Medication adherence and lipid management
Olson [17], 2009; US Medical offices RCT, 2 years 421 (214/207) CAD patients (AMI, CABG, PCI) who had been enrolled in the CPCRS for at least 1 year and who had 2 consecutive controlled LDL-C, non–HDL-C, and blood pressure within 6 months before enrollment; 72 years Review of laboratory results, blood pressure, medications and adherence, counseling on diet and exercise regimens, making medication adjustments, ordering follow-up laboratory tests, and mailing laboratory reminder letters for patients Every 1 year Usual care plus laboratory reminder letters The occurrence of coronary events, mortality, and hospitalization; medication adherence, BP control, and lipid management
Straka [18], 2005; US Outpatient clinic cluster RCT, 6.5 months of active treatment, and 18 months of follow-up 481 (150/331) CHD patients whose LDL-C levels were not at goal; 69 years Managing lipid-lowering drug therapy and educating patients on cardiovascular risk reduction, communicating the responsible physician about the medication managements. Every 6 weeks Usual care Medication adherence, BP control and lipid management
  1. Abbreviations: AMI acute myocardial infarction, BP blood pressure, CABG coronary artery bypass graft, CAD coronary artery disease, CHD coronary heart disease, CPCRS Clinical Pharmacy Cardiac Risk Service, GP general practitioner, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, MEDMAN Medicines Management, PCI percutaneous coronary intervention, PTCA percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, RCT randomized controlled trial, UA unstable angina, US United States.