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Table 3 ER visits: crude and adjusted utilisation Rate Ratio (RR) and 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI), Reggio Emilia (Italy), 2008-2010

From: Effects of immigrant status on Emergency Room (ER) utilisation by children under age one: a population-based study in the province of Reggio Emilia (Italy)

Characteristics Crude RR 95% CI Adjusted RR* 95% CI
Citizenship     
Italian 1.00 - 1.00 -
Immigrant^ 1.67 1.54-1.80 1.51 1.39-1.63
Geographical Area     
Central and Eastern Europe (n = 639) 1.74 1.52-1.98 1.55 1.36-1.77
Asia (n = 695) 1.26 1.11-1.44 1.10 0.96-1.25
Northern Africa (n = 735) 1.77 1.57-2.00 1.60 1.42-1.81
Sub-Saharan Africa (n = 223) 2.31 1.89-2.83 2.12 1.75-2.59
Latin America (n = 91) 1.86 1.34-2.59 1.86 1.36-2.54
Mother’s educational level     
high 1.00 - 1.00 -
medium 1.13 1.02-1.25 1.09 0.99-1.21
low 1.71 1.54-1.90 1.51 1.36-1.68
trend p §< 0.001   p §< 0.001  
Age at delivery     
age <25 1.61 1.38-1.88 1.23 1.06-1.44
age 25-34 1.00 - 1.00 -
age > =35 0.98 0.90-1.06 1.03 0.95-1.11
Child gender     
Male 1.00 - 1.00 -
Female 0.88 0.82-0.95 0.89 0.82-0.95
Previous live birth     
None 1.00 - 1.00 -
At least one 0.86 0.80-0.92 0.80 0.75-0.87
Likelihood-ratio test for alpha = 0 - - p < 0.001  
Vuong test    p = 0.099  
  1. * Adjusted utilisation Rate Ratio (RR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI) were obtained using multivariate negative binomial regression model with citizenship, mother’s educational level, age at delivery, child gender, and previous live birth as covariates.
  2. ^ Immigrants from HMC were classified by geographical area according to WHO criteria. There were no children whose mother was of Western Pacific origin.
  3. §p value for linear trend test.