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Table 3 Patient health and service outcomes between the NC and non-NC care cohorts

From: The impact on patient health and service outcomes of introducing nurse consultants: a historically matched controlled study

  NC care Non- NC care p-value#
Service outcomes          
Number of Accident & Emergency visits in the first six months after the indexed hospital admission* 0 1 2 ≥ 3 0 1 2 ≥ 3  
   All specialties 133 (95.0%) 6 (4.3%) 1 (0.7%) 0 107 (76.4%) 20 (14.3%) 10 (7.1%) 3 (2.1%) <0.001
   Diabetes 39 (97.5%) 1 (2.5%) 0 0 34 (85.0%) 4 (10.0%) 2 (5.0%) 0 0.053
   Renal 37 (92.5%) 3 (7.5%) 0 0 18 (45.0%) 13 (32.5%) 8 (20.0%) 1 (2.5%) <0.001
   Wound & stoma care 20 (100.0%) 0 0 0 20 (100.0%) 0 0 0
   Psychiatrics 19 (95.0%) 1 (5.0%) 0 0 16 (80.0%) 3 (15.0%) 0 1 (5.0%) 0.157
   Continence 18 (90.0%) 1 (5.0%) 1 (5.0%) 0 19 (95.0%) 0 0 1 (5.0%) 0.999
Number of hospital admissions in the first six months after the indexed hospital admission* 0 1 2 ≥ 3 0 1 2 ≥ 3  
   All specialties 133 (95.0%) 7 (5.0%) 0 0 100 (71.4%) 27 (19.3%) 11 (7.9%) 2 (1.4%) <0.001
   Diabetes 38 (95.0%) 2 (5.0%) 0 0 31 (77.5%) 7 (17.5%) 2 (5.0%) 0 0.029
   Renal 37 (92.5%) 3 (7.5%) 0 0 18 (45.0%) 13 (32.5%) 8 (20.0%) 1 (2.5%) <0.001
   Wound & stoma care 20 (100.0%) 0 0 0 20 (100.0%) 0 0 0
   Psychiatrics 19 (95.0%) 1 (5.0%) 0 0 13 (65.0%) 5 (25.0%) 1 (5.0%) 1 (5.0%) 0.034
   Continence 19 (95.0%) 1 (5.0%) 0 0 18 (90.0%) 2 (10.0%) 0 0 0.317
Length of hospital stay among those who had re-admitted to hospital in the first six months after the indexed hospital admission (days) ψ Median (range) Median (range)  
   All specialties 2 (1 – 17) 15 (1 – 88) 0.001a
   Diabetes 2 (1 – 2) 6 (2 – 17) 0.017a
   Renal 1 ( 1 – 7) 16 (4 – 88) <0.001a
   Wound & stoma care
   Psychiatrics 17 (17 – 17) 41 (9 – 72) 0.091a
   Continence 2 (2 – 2) 2 (1 – 2) 0.799a
Number of acute complications during the hospital stay of the indexed admission* 0 1 2 ≥ 3 0 1 2 ≥ 3  
   All specialties 81 (81.0%) 9 (9.0%) 7 (7.0%) 3 (3.0%) 64 (64.0%) 24 (24.0%) 9 (9.0%) 3 (3.0%) 0.112
   Diabetes 33 (82.5%) 5 (12.5%) 2 (5.0%) 0 33 (82.5%) 6 (15.0%) 1 (2.5%) 0 0.813
   Renal 37 (92.5%) 3 (7.5%) 0 0 15 (37.5%) 15 (37.5%) 8 (20.0%) 2 (5.0%) <0.001
   Wound & stoma care
   Psychiatrics
   Continence 11 (55.0%) 1 (5.0%) 5 (25.0%) 3 (15.0%) 16 (80.0%) 3 (15.0%) 0 1 (5.0%) 0.058
Number of times of treatment / medication regimen altered by nurses according to patients’ condition during the hospital stay of the indexed admission* 0 1 2 ≥ 3 0 1 2 ≥ 3  
   All specialties 24 (24.0%) 36 (36.0%) 27 (27.0%) 13 (13.0%) 66 (66.0%) 19 (19.0%) 11 (11.0%) 4 (4.0%) <0.001
   Diabetes 6 (15.0%) 21 (52.5%) 12 (30.0%) 1 (2.5%) 23 (57.5%) 6 (15.0%) 9 (22.5%) 2 (5.0%) 0.004
   Renal 9 (22.5%) 10 (25.0%) 11 (27.5%) 10 (25.0%) 36 (90.0%) 4 (10.0%) 0 0 <0.001
   Wound & stoma care
   Psychiatrics
   Continence 9 (45.0%) 5 (25.0%) 4 (20.0%) 2 (10.0%) 7 (35.0%) 9 (45.0%) 2 (10.0%) 2 (10.0%) 0.861
Health outcomes    
Diabetes specialty Mean (standard deviation) Mean (standard deviation)  
   HbA1c level (%) [pre] 10.0 (1.9) 9.4 (2.2) 0.156b
   Hba1c level (%) [post] 8.2 (1.4) 9.2 (1.8) 0.006b
   Change of HbA1c level (%) [post – pre] -1.8 (1.7) -0.2 (1.9) <0.001b
Renal specialty Mean (standard deviation) Mean (standard deviation)  
   Urea level (mmol/L) 21.7 (8.1) 26.2 (10.4) 0.034b
   Urea creatinine ratio 27.0 (10.5) 34.8 (12.4) 0.001b
Wound & stoma care specialty Median (range) Median (range)  
   Number of dressings for wound healed ψ 7 (1 – 26) 28 (12 – 77) <0.001
  1. Data marked with are presented as mean (standard deviation) and with ψ as median (interquartile range), all others are presented as frequency (%). *These continuous variables with only a few discrete values are presented by frequency and percentage instead of median (range) or mean (standard deviation).
  2. # All the comparisons were assessed using Wilicoxon signed-rank test, unless specified otherwise.
  3. a Mann–Whitney test for the subgroup analysis of the length of hospital stay for those who had re-admitted to hospital in the first six months after the indexed hospital admission between the two cohorts (totally 7 and 40 patients respectively among the 140 patients in each of the NC and non-NC care cohorts).
  4. b Paired t-test.