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Table 2 Drug utilisation and expenditures by baseline BMI group (unadjusted)

From: Impact of BMI and BMI change on future drug expenditures in adults: results from the MONICA/KORA cohort study

   Total Normal weight Overweight Moderate obesity Severe obesity p-valuea
     n 2,946 1,064 1,327 434 121  
Number of drugs Mean 2.14 1.42 2.23 3.09 4.12 <.0001
SD 2.44 1.80 2.49 2.75 3.23
Costs/week (base) Mean 9.48 6.94 9.69 13.63 14.51 <.0001
95% CI b [8.67-10.35] [5.63–8.57] [8.62–10.85] [10.99–16.76] [11.65–17.78]
Costs/week (prescription drugs) c Mean 8.35 5.67 8.58 12.80 13.55 <.0001
95% CI b [7.60-9.11] [4.51–7.11] [7.67–9.63] [10.23–15.78] [10.84–16.56]
Costs/week (7/week) d Mean 12.25 9.67 12.24 17.29 17.09 <.0001
95% CI b [11.34-13.20] [8.09–11.64] [11.03–13.52] [14.36–20.71] [13.96–20.61]
Costs/week (discounts) e Mean 9.08 6.60 9.31 13.13 13.93 <.0001
95% CI b [8.30-9.93] [5.35–8.12] [8.29–10.43] [10.55–16.15] [11.26–16.92]
Costs per year (base) Mean 493 361 504 709 755 <.0001
  95% CI b [451–538] [293–446] [448–564] [546–872] [607–925]  
  1. ap-values were based on Kruskal–Wallis tests.
  2. b Confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated based on 1,000 bootstrap replications.
  3. cOnly prescription drugs.
  4. dIn case the pharmaceuticals were not taken regularly, we assumed 7 days of intake instead of 1 (base analysis) to show up the upper limit of estimated costs as sensitivity analysis.
  5. ePharmacy discounts, as regularised in the Social Security Code (SGB) V §130 and §130a, were incorporated as sensitivity analysis.