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Table 3 Univariable and multivariable linear regression analysis of possible predictive characteristics

From: Explaining the amount of care needed by hospitalised surgical patients: a prospective time and motion study

     Uni-variate Multi-variate
Characteristic N (%) Mean (SD) Range Estimate (B) 95% CI P-value Estimate (B) 95% CI P-value
Age   57.2 (16.6) 19-87 0.004 0.001–0.007 0.004 0.002 0.000–0.005 0.072
Surgical Intervention performed 167 (96)    0.594 0.351–0.837 <0.001 0.466 0.288–0.643 <0.001
Gender (males) 99 (56.9)    -0.015 –0.118–0.870 0.767    
Number of co-morbidities   1.47 (1.68) 0-9 0.000 –0.031–0.030 0.978 –0.038 –0.064–0.012 0.005
Number of complications   0.21 (0.60) 0-4 0.221 0.144–0.299 <0.001 0.072 0.005–0.139 0.036
ASA-class          
1 41 (26.8)    RC      
2 89 (58.17)    0.168, 0.057– 0.279 0.003    
     RC      
3 23 (15.03)    0.234, 0.081–0.387 0.003    
     0.067 –0.071–0.204 0.339    
BMI at admission   26.43 (5.37) 17.2-53.6 –0.006 –0.015–0.003 0.189    
Nutritional status   2.28 (5.78) 0-50 0.018 0.010–0.026 <0.001    
Delirium during hospitalisation 3 (0.7)         
Pressure ulcer acquired during hospitalisation          
grade 1 0         
grade 2 1 (0.6)         
grade 3 1 (0.6)         
grade 4 0         
Isolation          
barrier 2 (1.15)         
strict isolation 0         
Survival 174 (100)         
Number of medications during hospitalisation   8.51 (5.07) 0-26 0.031 0.022–0.040 <0.001 0.013 0.004–0.023 0.007
Admission type     –0.210 –0.360–0.061 0.006    
home 152 (87.36)         
emergency 22 (12.64)         
Discharge type          
home 163 (93.7)         
other 11 (6.32)         
Length of Stay   8.11 (6.85) 1-45 0.034 0.028–0.039 <0.001 0.032 0.027–0.037 <0.001
Surgical specialty          
TRAUMA 4 (2.3)    RC      
URO 21 (12.07)    0.776 0.511–1.042 <0.001 0.760 0.500–1.021 <0.001
ORTHO 49 (28.16)    0.758 0.505–1.012 <0.001 0.706 0.461–0.950 <0.001
ABDO 55 (31.06)    1.152 0.900–1.405 <0.001 1.005 0.755–1.255 <0.001
SHORT 14 (8.05)    0.644 0.368–0.920 <0.001 0.623 0.350–0.896 <0.001
PLAST 12 (6.9)    0.622 0.381–0.943 <0.001 0.610 0.339–0.882 <0.001
VASC 11 (6.32)    0.786 0.502–1.071 <0.001 0.738 0.456–1.020 <0.001
ORAL 8 (4.6)    0.679 0.380–0.977 <0.001 0.664 0.383–0.946 <0.001
  1. RC=reference category.
  2. Median total costs of the demand for care per patient were €8,446 and varied from €815 for trauma patients to €82,780 for G-I surgical patients (Figure 2). Surgical and diagnostic interventions contributed most to these costs. Nursing costs formed the largest part (76%) of the personnel expenses; €308, vs. physicians €56, and paramedics €2.70 per patient, excluding the personnel costs for the surgical intervention. Median costs for surgical interventions were €5,286 (range: €0 – €21,111). Median costs for diagnostic procedures were €2,699 and varied from €372 to €74,567 (Figure 3).