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Table 4 Patterns of health care engagement associated with subsequent cardiovascular and diabetes-specific hospitalization within 1 year of discharge from an index hospitalization among patients with diabetes

From: Patterns of engagement with the health care system and risk of subsequent hospitalization amongst patients with diabetes

  Cardiovascular-specific Diabetes-specific
Unadjusted model Adjusted model* Unadjusted model Adjusted model†
HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI)
# of emergency department visits in the 1-year     
Period prior to the index hospitalization     
  0 Reference Reference Reference Reference
  Per visit 1.05 (1.03–1.06) 1.03 (1.01–1.05) 1.05 (1.03–1.07) 1.03 (1.01–1.05)
# of primary care physician visits in the 1-year     
Period prior to the index hospitalization     
  0 1.11 (0.73–1.68) 0.95 (0.63–1.44) 1.71 (1.16–2.52) 1.08 (0.73–1.60)
  1-4 Reference Reference Reference Reference
  5-9 1.05 (0.86–1.27) 0.97 (0.80–1.18) 0.54 (0.42–0.69) 0.78 (0.61–1.02)
  10+ 1.54 (1.29–1.85) 1.10 (0.91–1.33) 0.63 (0.50–0.81) 0.96 (0.74–1.26)
Discharge Disposition of index hospitalization     
  Discharged Home Reference Reference Reference Reference
  Transfer to Palliative Care -- -- 1.11 (0.16–7.88) 1.24 (0.17–9.00)
  Transfer to Long-term Care 2.14 (1.62–2.82) 0.78 (0.58–1.05) 0.49 (0.24–1.05) 0.63 (0.29–1.37)
  Discharged Home with Support Services 2.34 (2.00–2.73) 1.26 (1.07–1.50) 1.14 (0.86–1.51) 1.32 (0.98–1.81)
  Left Against Medical Advice 1.38 (0.74–2.58) 2.11 (1.13–3.97) 5.54 (3.60–8.54) 2.86 (1.82–4.49)
  1. *Adjustment for patient level factors (Age, sex, urban/rural status, A1c measurement in past 6 months (Y/N), eGFR category prior to index hospitalization, hypertension, Charlson comorbidities (cerebrovascular disease, congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, renal disease), factors related to index hospitalization (most responsible diagnosis and length of stay) and health resource use post discharge.
  2. †Adjustment for patient level factors (Age, sex, urban/rural status, A1c measurement in past 6 months (Y/N), eGFR category prior to index hospitalization, hypertension, affective disorder, Charlson comorbidities (cerebrovascular disease, congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, peripheral vascular disease), factors related to index hospitalization (most responsible diagnosis and length of stay) and health resource use post discharge.