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Table 1 The study population’s baseline demographic and clinical characteristics

From: A multicentre, double-blind, randomised, controlled, parallel-group study of the effectiveness of a pharmacist-acquired medication history in an emergency department

Characteristics All groups Control Intervention Value p–value
242 (100) 125 (51.65) 117 (48.35)
Age, mean ± SD 59 ± 19 58 ± 20 59 ± 18 −0.5355a 0.5928
Gender     0.2233b 0.6365
   Female 140 (57.9) 70 (56.0) 70 (59.8)   
   Male 102 (42.1) 55 (44.0) 47 (40.2)   
Educational level     0.0572b 0.9964
   No schooling 19 (7.9) 10 (8.0) 9 (7.7)   
   Elementary school 105 (43.4) 54 (43.2) 51 (43.6)   
   High school 81 (33.5) 43 (34.4) 38 (32.5)   
   Undergraduate 33 (13.6) 17 (13.6) 16 (13.7)   
   No information 4 (1.7) 1 (0.8) 3 (2.5)   
Social status*     6.7379b 0.08074
   Strata 1 (lowest level) 135 (82.3) 59 (76.6) 76 (87.4)   
   Strata 2 (low - medium) 22 (13.4) 12 (15.6) 10 (11.5)   
   Strata 3 (medium) 2 (1.2) 1 (1.3) 1 (1.1)   
   Strata 6 (highest level) 5 (3.1) 5 (6.5) 0 (0.0)   
Teaching hospitals     5.1145b 0.07752
   Fundacion Cardio Infantil 82 (33.9) 36 (28.8) 46 (39.3)   
   San Carlos 78 (32.2) 48 (38.4) 30 (25.6)   
   La Samaritana 82 (33.9) 41 (32.8) 41 (35.1)   
No. of hospitalisations, median (IQR, min, max) 0 (1, 0, 12) 0 (1, 0, 10) 0 (1, 0, 12) −0.2168a 0.8285
No. of co-morbidities, median (IQR, min, max) 1 (2, 0, 4) 1 (2, 0, 4) 1 (1, 0, 4) 0.4219 a 0.6735
Type of comorbidity     11.6316b 0.392
   Arthritis/osteoporosis 16 (5.5) 11 (7.2) 5 (3.6)   
   Malignant diseases 12 (4.1) 4 (2.6) 8 (5.7)   
   Cardiovascular disorder 90 (30.8) 47 (30.7) 43 (31.0)   
   Diabetes mellitus 22 (7.5) 12 (7.9) 10 (7.2)   
   Epilepsy/Parkinson’s disease 10 (3.4) 7 (4.6) 3 (2.2)   
   Pulmonary disease 18 (6.2) 13 (8.5) 5 (3.6)   
   Gastrointestinal disease 15 (5.2) 7 (4.6) 8 (5.8)   
   Hypertension 14 (4.8) 6 (3.9) 8 (5.8)   
   Hypothyroidism 22 (7.5) 8 (5.2) 14 (10.0)   
   Metabolism disease 18 (6.2) 8 (5.2) 10 (7.2)   
   Urinary infection 15 (5.1) 7 (4.6) 8 (5.7)   
   Other 40 (13.7) 23 (15.0) 17 (12.2)   
No. of medicines, median (IQR, min, max) 4 (4, 1, 12) 4 (4, 1, 16) 4 (4, 1, 14) −0.3299a 0.7418
Medicine group     17.208b 0.3066
   Anti-infective for systemic use 39 (3.7) 15 (2.8) 24 (4.6)   
   Anti-inflammatory drugs 60 (5.6) 32 (5.9) 28 (5.4)   
   Cardiovascular system 252 (23.6) 130 (23.9) 122 (23.3)   
   Alimentary tract and metabolism 194 (18.2) 102 (18.8) 92 (17.6)   
   Systemic hormonal preparations 31 (2.9) 12 (2.2) 19 (3.6)   
   Respiratory system 65 (6.1) 33 (6.1) 32 (6.1)   
   Blood and blood-forming organs 93 (8.7) 51 (9.4) 42 (8.0)   
   Nervous system 168 (15.7) 90 (16.5) 78 (14.9)   
   Vitamins and nutrients 39 (3.7) 21 (3.7) 18 (3.4)   
   Herbal medicine 21 (2.0) 7 (1.3) 14 (2.7)   
   Over-the-counter medicine 75 (7.0) 37 (6.8) 38 (7.3)   
   Other 30 (2.8) 14 (2.6) 16 (3.1)   
Allergic reaction     0b 1
   No 194 (80.2) 100 (80.0) 94 (80.3)   
   Yes 48 (19.8) 25 (20.0) 23 (19.7)   
No. of interactions      
Minorc, median (IQR, min, max) 1 (0, 1, 3) 1 (0, 1, 3) 1 (0, 1, 2) −0.3943 0.6942
Moderated, median (IQR, min, max) 1 (1, 1, 7) 1 (1, 1, 7) 1 (1, 1, 3) 0.9524 0.3416
Majore, median (IQR, min, max) 1 (0, 1, 4) 1 (0, 1, 2) 1 (0, 1, 4) −1.4242 0.1787
  1. Abbreviations: at student; bChi-square; SD (standard deviation). IQR, interquartile range; min, minimum; max, maximum. * Social status is not important data during the interview on admission to the ED at the San Carlos teaching hospital.
  2. c Minor: Minimal clinical significance, involving minimising risk, assessing risk and considering an alternative drug, taking steps to circumvent interaction risk and/or instituting a monitoring plan.
  3. d Moderate: Moderate clinical significance, usually avoiding combinations, being used only in special circumstances.
  4. e Major: High clinical significance, avoiding combinations; the risk of the interaction would outweigh the benefits.
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