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Table 2 Results of regression analysis showing the regression coefficients (β) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and p-values for logarithm-transformed public expenditure on care

From: Does informal care reduce public care expenditure on elderly care? Estimates based on Finland’s Age Study

  MODEL 1=Rehabilitation + Care + Background variables MODEL 2 = Rehabilitation + Health and Functional ability + Health-related Quality of Life MODEL 3 = Rehabilitation + Care + Functional ability + Health-related quality of life MODEL 4 = All variables  
  MODEL 1 MODEL 2 MODEL 3 MODEL 4  
Variable β (CI 95%) p-value β (CI 95%) p-value β (CI 95%) p-value β (CI 95%) p-value
Intercept 9.14 8.75 9.54 <0.0001 * 14.37 12.58 16.15 <0.0001 * 13.40 12.09 14.71 <0.0001 * 12.60 10.91 14.29 <0.0001 *
Rehabilitation                     
Yes 0.05 −0.11 0.21 0.5587   0.15 −0.02 0.33 0.0895   0.09 −0.07 0.25 0.2728   0.09 −0.07 0.25 0.2858  
No 0      0      0      0     
Care received                     
Informal care only for elderly living alone −1.34 −1.70 −0.97 <0.0001 *       −1.21 −1.58 −0.84 <0.0001 * −1.15 −1.53 −0.77 <0.0001 *
Informal care only from a co-resident family member −1.54 −1.92 −1.16 <0.0001 *       −1.44 −1.81 −1.06 <0.0001 * −1.42 −1.80 −1.04 <0.0001 *
A combination of formal and informal care −0.07 −0.42 0.28 0.7081        −0.13 −0.48 0.22 0.4529   −0.10 −0.46 0.25 0.5628  
Formal care only 0           0      0     
Age group                     
65–74 −0.04 0.74 −0.29 0.2016             −0.01 −0.26 0.23 0.9157  
75–84 0.12 0.28 −0.10 0.329             0.07 −0.14 0.28 0.5294  
85+ 0                0     
Gender                     
Male 0.18 −0.07 0.43 0.1554             0.14 −0.11 0.39 0.2571  
Female 0                0     
Financial situation                     
Good −0.12 −0.33 0.10 0.2937             −0.10 −0.32 0.11 0.3588  
Average 0                0     
Poor 0.09 −0.17 0.35 0.501             −0.09 −0.35 0.17 0.5014  
Self-assessed health                     
Good       −0.06 −0.58 0.45 0.8095        −0.16 −0.63 0.31 0.4992  
Average       −0.05 −0.27 0.18 0.6873        −0.17 −0.37 0.03 0.0956  
Poor       0           0     
IADL                     
Good       −0.51 −0.83 −0.19 0.0019 *       −0.34 −0.65 −0.04 0.0269 *
Medium       −0.16 −0.41 0.09 0.1981        −0.19 −0.42 0.04 0.1029  
Poor       0           0     
FIM™ score       −0.04 −0.05 −0.03 <0.0001 * −0.03 −0.04 −0.02 <0.0001 * −0.02 −0.04 −0.01 0.0001 *
GDS score       0.03 −0.01 0.07 0.1796        0.00 −0.03 0.04 0.8403  
MMSE score       −0.03 −0.06 0.00 0.068        0.00 −0.03 0.03 0.9132  
HRQoL 15D score       −0.10 −1.63 0.64 0.3918   −1.16 −2.01 −0.30 0.0079 * −0.42 −1.45 0.62 0.4286  
* (p < 0.05)