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Table 4 Predictors of seeking care from government health services (opposed to private health services)

From: No longer diseases of the wealthy: prevalence and health-seeking for self-reported chronic conditions among urban poor in Southern India

Predictor variables Overall chronic conditions (n = 3844) Diabetes (n = 1760) Hypertension (n = 2756)
  Adjusted odds ratio* (95% CI) pvalue Adjusted odds ratio* (95% CI) pvalue Adjusted odds ratio* (95% CI) pvalue
Age groups (years)       
  ≤40 - - - - - -
  40-50 1.1 (0.7, 1.8) 0.584 5.3 (1.6, 17.3) 0.006 1.2 (0.7, 2.0) 0.599
  50-60 1.7 (0.9, 3.1) 0.106 13.5 (2.7, 67.5) 0.002 1.6 (0.8, 3.4) 0.175
  ≥60 3.7 (1.6, 8.3) 0.002 40.2 (5.0,325.7) 0.001 3.4 (1.3, 8.8) 0.010
Monthly per capita income
  First quintile - - - - - -
  Second quintile 0.7 (0.5, 1.0) 0.028 0.7 (0.4, 1.2) 0.235 0.4 (0.2, 0.6) <0.001
  Third quintile 0.5 (0.3, 0.7) 0.001 0.6 (0.3, 1.1) 0.106 0.2 (0.1, 0.4) <0.001
  Fourth quintile 0.4 (0.2, 0.7) 0.001 1.1 (0.7, 1.9) 0.617 0.1 (0.1, 0.4) <0.001
  Fifth quintile 0.3 (0.1, 0.5) <0.001 0.6 (0.3, 1.0) 0.066 0.1 (0.0, 0.3) <0.001
Household poverty status       
  Above the poverty line - - - - - -
  Below the poverty line 1.4 (1.0, 2.0) 0.069 1.3 (0.7, 2.4) 0.392 5.2 (1.6, 17.1) 0.007
Religion       
  Islam - -    - -
  Hinduism 0.8 (0.5, 0.1) 0.185    0.9 (0.5, 1.5) 0.676
  Christianity 0.4 (0.2, 0.8) 0.011    0.3 (0.1, 0.8) 0.019
Tiers of health services       
  Clinics/health centres - - - - - -
  Referral hospitals 2.4 (1.5, 3.8) <0.001 5.3 (1.9, 14.7) 0.001 1.6 (0.9, 3.0) 0.115
  Super-specialty hospitals 30.3 (14.4, 63.8) <0.001 99.9 (16.2, 614.1) <0.001 9.2 (3.0, 28.2) <0.001
Interaction terms       
  Age group*Tiers of health services 0.8 (0.7, 0.9) <0.001 0.6 (0.5, 0.9) 0.002 0.8 (0.7, 0.9) 0.008
  Monthly per capita income *Religion 1.2 (1.0, 1.3) 0.010    1.2 (1.0, 1.4) 0.019
  Monthly per capita income *Tiers of health service      1.1 (1.0, 1.3) 0.017
  Household poverty status*Religion      0.4 (0.2, 0.9) 0.021
  1. - Referent category. *Adjusted odds ratio as obtained from multivariable logistic regression models. All the predictor variables were included in the initial model, including two-way interaction terms that were significant at p < 0.05 during binominal logistic regression. Similar to a backward elimination technique, the predictors that were not significant at p < 0.05 were then dropped individually, and the resultant models were compared for goodness of fit (using likelihood-ratio test) until no further improvement was possible.