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Table 4 Annual direct medical, indirect and total costs – results of the Gamma regression models – adjusted for age, sex, school education, alcohol consumption and physical activity

From: The association of smoking status with healthcare utilisation, productivity loss and resulting costs: results from the population-based KORA F4 study

Parameter Total direct medical costs Total indirect costs Total costs
  exp(estimate) exp(estimate) exp(estimate)
  [95% CI] [95% CI] [95% CI]
Smoking status Current smoker 1.06 [0.88–1.27] 1.28 [0.95–1.73] 1.24 ** [1.03 – 1.49]
  Occasional smoker 0.73 [0.50–1.06] 1.26 [0.68–2.36] 0.96 [0.65 – 1.41]
  Former smoker 1.26 *** [1.10–1.45] 1.31 ** [1.03–1.68] 1.35 *** [1.18 – 1.55]
  Never smoker 1.00 1.00 1.00
  1. *** significant at the 1% level/** significant at the 5% level.
  2. n=3,068 due to missing information on school education in three subjects.
  3. 1€ was assigned to observations with costs=0.