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Table 1 Socio-demographic characteristics of the KORA F4 sample

From: The association of smoking status with healthcare utilisation, productivity loss and resulting costs: results from the population-based KORA F4 study

  Current smokers Occasional smokers Former smokers Never smokers Total p-value
   n=468 (15.2%) n=79 (2.6%) n=1246 (40.6%) n=1278 (41.6%) n=3071 (100%)  
Sex Women 210 (44.9%) 41 (51.9%) 517 (41.5%) 824 (64.5%) 1592 (51.8%) <0.0001 b
Men 258 (55.1%) 38 (48.1%) 729 (58.5%) 454 (33.5%) 1479 (48.2%)  
Age   49.68 (10.5) 48.84 (12.2) 57.40 (13.2) 57.49 (13.5) 56.04 (13.3) <0.0001 c
Education a Basic education 237 (50.6%) 37 (47.4%) 648 (52.1%) 661 (51.8%) 1583 (51.6%) 0.32 b
Secondary education 134 (28.6%) 22 (28.2%) 301 (24.2%) 300 (23.5%) 757 (24.7%)  
Higher education 97 (20.7%) 19 (24.4%) 296 (23.8%) 316 (24.8%) 728 (23.7%)  
Alcohol consumption low risk (women: ≤20 g, men: ≤40 g alcohol per day) 382(81.6%) 69 (87.3%) 1031 (82.7%) 1160 (90.8%) 2642 (86.0%) <0.0001 b
elevated risk (women: >20 g, men: >40 g alcohol per day) 86 (18.4%) 10 (12.7%) 215 (17.3%) 118 (9.2%) 429 (14.0%)  
Physical activity active 228 (48.7%) 51 (64.4%) 699 (56.1%) 693 (54.2%) 1671 (54.4%) 0.01 b
  inactive 240 (51.3%) 28 (35.4%) 547 (43.9%) 585 (45.8%) 1400 (45.6%)  
  1. Data are presented as n (%)/mean (standard deviation). Any discrepancies in percentages are due to rounding.
  2. an=3 participants with missing information on school education. These subjects were excluded from the regression analysis.
  3. bp-value based on Chi2-test.
  4. cp-value based on ANOVA.