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Table 4 Negative binomial regression model for doctor visits and hospital days (adults)

From: Direct costs of inequalities in health care utilization in Germany 1994 to 2009: a top-down projection

  Men (n = 112,800) Women (n = 123,365)
  Doctor visits Hospital days Doctor visits Hospital days
Age OR 95%-CI OR 95%-CI OR 95%-CI OR 95%-CI
18-29 Ref.   Ref.   Ref.   Ref.  
30-44 1.20* [1.14,1.26] 1.21 [0.94,1.52] 1.10* [1.06,1.14] 1.09 [0.97,1.23]
45-64 1.98* [1.88,2.07] 2.97* [2.38,3.70] 1.40* [1.35,1.45] 1.59* [1.42,1.77]
≥65 2.82* [2.69,2.96] 5.79* [4.62,7.25] 1.88* [1.82,1.95] 3.52* [3.17,3.89]
Time period  
1994-1998 Ref.   Ref.   Ref.   Ref.  
1999-2003 0.92* [0.88,0.95] 0.96 [0.86,1.07] 0.89* [0.87,0.92] 0.87* [0.80,0.94]
2004-2006 0.86* [0.82,0.89] 0.85* [0.75,0.98] 0.82* [0.79,0.84] 0.75* [0.68,0.83]
2007-2009 0.86* [0.83,0.90] 0.73* [0.62,0.85] 0.81* [0.79,0.84] 0.71* [0.64,0.78]
Income position  
< 60% 1.28* [1.20,1.37] 2.22* [1.91,2.58] 1.08* [1.03,1.12] 1.33* [1.19,1.50]
60%- < 150% 1.14* [1.11,1.18] 1.56* [1.41,1.73] 1.01 [0.98,1.04] 1.13* [1.03,1.23]
≥150% Ref.   Ref.   Ref.   Ref.  
Statistics  
chi2 3,125 1,079 2,076 1,110
p 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
  1. Data: SOEP 1994–2010.
  2. OR Odds ratios [95% CI]: 95% confidence interval of the odds ratios based on robust standard errors. Ref.: reference category of indicator variables. All indicator variables are coded 0 = no and 1 = yes. p represents the p value for the likelihood-ratio test for the respective model, chi2 is the corresponding chi2 test, n the number of observations. * p < 0.05.