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Table 1 Hypothesized relationships with empowerment dimensions

From: Patient empowerment in long-term conditions: development and preliminary testing of a new measure

Predictor Predicted relationship with: Supporting empirical and theoretical references
  Total score Dimensions  
Presence of depression as a long-term condition - - [23, 6163]
Number of long-term conditions - - [31]
Duration of long-term condition + + [19, 23, 24, 31, 61]
General health + + [21, 23, 64]
Identity (Constructed Meaning scale) + + (I) [65, 66]
Self-efficacy (Self-efficacy in Long-Term Conditions Scale) + + [22, 25, 32, 67, 68]
Patient enablement (PEI) + + [33, 59, 6971]
Quality of chronic care (PACIC) + + [21, 23, 63, 65, 7275]
Continuity (GPPS) + + [60, 76, 77]
Continuity (GPPS preference) + + [60, 78]
Interpersonal care (GPPS) + + (KU) [33, 75, 76, 7880]
Interpersonal care (GPPS confidence) + + [10, 69, 76, 8082]
Gender 0 0 [20, 21, 23, 24, 32, 61, 63, 65],[74, 83, 84]
Age 0 0 [21, 23, 24, 6163, 65, 85]
Ethnicity 0 0 [20, 21, 32, 65, 74, 84]
Living arrangements 0 0 [20, 21, 61]
Education + + [2124, 31, 32, 61, 83]
Current work + + (KU, EO) [20, 23, 61, 74, 83]
  1. Note: Identity = Constructed Meaning scale [48]; Self-efficacy = Self-efficacy in Long-Term Conditions scale [52]; PEI Patient Enablement Instrument [33]; PACIC Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care [56]; GPPS = General Practice Patient Survey [44]; Continuity (GPPS) and Continuity (GPPS preference) measured using two GPPS questions; Interpersonal care (GPPS) measured using GPPS interpersonal care scale; Interpersonal care (GPPS confidence) measured using a single GPPS question; Predicted relationships: (+) Positive relationship; (−) Negative relationship; (0) No relationship; Tested empirical dimensions: (I) = Identity; (KU) = Knowledge and understanding; (EO) = Enabling others.