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Table 3 Coding framework

From: Assessing participation in a community-based health planning and services programme in Ghana

Codes from data Basic themes Organising themes Global themes Spider-gram scores
Barriers to community participation Needs Assessment 1
– Health team from Wa – Non-involvement of communities in programme design – CHPS was designed externally by health experts   
– We wanted a health centre     
– Programme designed outside the community – Community meetings were limited to a few    
– Community not involved     
– Only unit committee chairman and a few were consulted     
Facilitators of community participation   
– We decided on CHPS site – Community members chose CHPS site – High decision making role   
– Community sensitised on about CHPS – Community awareness about CHPS    
Barriers to community participation Leadership 3
– committee was selected – Undemocratic decision making processes – Undemocratic leadership style   
– Chairman and the committee – Vertical leadership style – Patriarchal leadership   
– decisions made unilaterally by the committee – Low female representation in committee    
– Don’t know about women role     
– women not in the committee     
Facilitators of community participation   
– Dedicated and hardworking – High community confidence in committee – Selfless and represent community interest   
– Represent all our interest     
Facilitators of community participation Organization 5
– Working with health volunteers – CHPS engage with community structures – CHPS integrated well with pre-existing community structures   
– traditional birth attendants(TBA) give support – CHPS tolerance with community networks    
– unit committee team support and engage with CHPS     
Barriers to community participation Resource mobilisation 5
– Everyone is poor – Resource MobilizationCommittee dominance in resource contributions and allocation – Contribution not pro-poor   
– everyone contributes equally – Controlled exclusively by committee – Less community control   
– decisions made exclusively by health committee – Internal resources – Lack of external support   
– contributions given to committee     
– within community resources     
Facilitators of community participation   
– Supported and contributed fully – Full community support for CHPS – community actively contributed to support CHPS   
– CHPS maintenance – Community highly resourceful    
– Contributed labour, bought stones, carried sand, water, etc. – Contributions on gender lines    
– Contribute based on gender     
Barriers to community participation Management 4
– We(females) are not involved – ManagementNon-inclusiveness of management structures – Less community influence and voice in management   
– Only the committee – Ineffective management – Limited management capacity   
– No skills training     
Facilitators of community participation   
– Committee not influenced in CHPS supervision and management – Favourable management structures – CHPS independently overseen by committee   
– Cordial relation with GHS – Self-governing committee    
– Decision-making structures represent all interest groups