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Table 4 Methods and instruments for measuring the effects of auditing

From: Effects of auditing patient safety in hospital care: design of a mixed-method evaluation

Outcome variable Data source Frequency (type) of measurement and sample size per measurement Moments of measurement Unit of analysis
Primary outcome
Adverse events and complications Retrospective patient record review based on a protocol originally developed by the Harvard Medical Practice Study [19] 2 (before–and-after measurement) n = 400 - 3 months; + 15 months Patient
Secondary outcomes
Patient experiences Consumer quality-index questionnaire [29] based on the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems [30] 3 (before-and-after measurement) n = 800 - 3 months; + 9 months and 15 months Patient
Standardised mortality rate Routine administrative data of the hospital Continuously (time series) n = 233* Monthly Patient
Prolonged hospital stay Routine hospital administration data Continuously (time series) n = 3268** Monthly Patient
Team climate Team Climate Inventory [18] 2 (before and after measurement) n = 132*** - 3 months; + 15 months Professional or team
Patient safety culture Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture [31, 32] 2 (before-and-after measurement) n = 132*** - 3 months; + 15 months Professional
  Safety walk arounds [33, 34] 2 (before-and-after measurement) n = 8 - 3 months; + 15 months Department
  1. *Number of patients in the eight departments who died in 2012.
  2. **Number of patients with prolonged stay in 2012 in the eight departments.
  3. ***Average number of clinical healthcare providers per department.
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