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Table 4 Comparison of total scores and percent positive scores from each sub-dimension across Japan, Taiwan and the U.S.

From: The characteristics of patient safety culture in Japan, Taiwan and the United States

    Comparisons of Total Scores Comparisons of Percent Positive Scores
  Country1 Country2 Difference of mean score Cohen's d P 95% CI Difference of mean score Cohen's d P 95% CI
(Country1-Country2) (Country1-Country2)
Frequency of events reported Japan Taiwan 2.59 0.96 <0.01 (2.48–2.69) 0.35 0.88 <0.01 (0.34–0.37)
Japan U.S. 0.78 0.27   <0.01 (0.70–0.86) 0.07 0.17   <0.01 (0.06–0.08)
Taiwan U.S. −1.81 −0.63 <0.01 (−1.87–−1.74) −0.28 −0.68 <0.01 (−0.29–−0.27)
Overall perceptions of patient safety Japan Taiwan 0.38 0.17   <0.01 (0.26–0.49) 0.02 0.05   <0.01 (0.00–0.03)
Japan U.S. −0.51 −0.16   <0.01 (−0.61–−0.42) −0.10 −0.29   <0.01 (−0.11–−0.09)
Taiwan U.S. −0.89 −0.29   <0.01 (−0.97–−0.82) −0.12 −0.34   <0.01 (−0.12–−0.11)
Supervisor/manager expectations and actions promoting safety Japan Taiwan 0.11 0.05   0.07 (−0.01–0.23) −0.02 −0.07   <0.01 (−0.03–−0.01)
Japan U.S. −0.75 −0.24   <0.01 (−0.84–−0.66) −0.11 −0.35   <0.01 (−0.12–−0.10)
Taiwan U.S. −0.86 −0.27   <0.01 (−0.94–−0.79) −0.09 −0.28   <0.01 (−0.10–−0.08)
Organizational learning—continuous improvement Japan Taiwan −1.25 −0.77 <0.01 (−1.32–−1.17) −0.26 −0.80 <0.01 (−0.27–−0.24)
Japan U.S. −0.88 −0.44   <0.01 (−0.94–−0.83) −0.17 −0.50 <0.01 (−0.18–−0.16)
Taiwan U.S. 0.36 0.18   <0.01 (0.32–0.41) 0.09 0.26   <0.01 (0.08–0.10)
Teamwork within hospital units Japan Taiwan −0.59 −0.24   <0.01 (−0.71–−0.48) −0.09 −0.27   <0.01 (−0.10–−0.08)
Japan U.S. −0.77 −0.25   <0.01 (−0.85–−0.68) −0.09 −0.28   <0.01 (−0.09–−0.08)
Taiwan U.S. −0.17 −0.06   <0.01 (−0.25–−0.10) 0.00 0.00   0.99 (−0.01–0.01)
Communication openness Japan Taiwan 0.68 0.33   <0.01 (0.59–0.77) 0.11 0.32   <0.01 (0.10–0.13)
Japan U.S. −0.58 −0.24   <0.01 (−0.65–−0.51) −0.12 −0.32   <0.01 (−0.13–−0.11)
Taiwan U.S. −1.26 −0.53 <0.01 (−1.32–−1.21) −0.23 −0.63 <0.01 (−0.24–−0.22)
Feedback and communication about error Japan Taiwan 0.57 0.27   <0.01 (0.47–0.66) 0.09 0.24   <0.01 (0.07–0.10)
Japan U.S. −0.47 −0.19   <0.01 (−0.54–−0.40) −0.10 −0.25   <0.01 (−0.11–−0.09)
Taiwan U.S. −1.03 −0.41   <0.01 (−1.09–−0.97) −0.18 −0.48   <0.01 (−0.19–−0.17)
Nonpunitive response to error Japan Taiwan 0.85 0.41   <0.01 (0.75–0.95) 0.13 0.40   <0.01 (0.12–0.15)
Japan U.S. 0.21 0.08   <0.01 (0.13–0.29) 0.00 0.01   0.59 (−0.01–0.02)
Taiwan U.S. −0.64 −0.24   <0.01 (−0.71–−0.58) −0.13 −0.33   <0.01 (−0.14–−0.12)
Staffing Japan Taiwan 0.01 0.01   0.96 (−0.10–0.13) 0.01 0.02   0.39 (−0.01–0.02)
Japan U.S. −1.39 −0.46   <0.01 (−1.48–−1.30) −0.17 −0.52 <0.01 (−0.18–−0.16)
Taiwan U.S. −1.41 −0.46   <0.01 (−1.48–−1.33) −0.18 −0.54 <0.01 (−0.18–−0.17)
Hospital management support for patient safety Japan Taiwan −0.32 −0.17   <0.01 (−0.42–−0.23) −0.07 −0.19   <0.01 (−0.08–−0.06)
Japan U.S. −0.93 −0.38   <0.01 (−1.00–−0.86) −0.19 −0.51 <0.01 (−0.20–−0.18)
Taiwan U.S. −0.61 −0.25   <0.01 (−0.67–−0.55) −0.12 −0.32   <0.01 (−0.13–−0.11)
Teamwork across hospital units Japan Taiwan −0.56 −0.23   <0.01 (−0.68–−0.45) −0.07 −0.19   <0.01 (−0.08–−0.05)
Japan U.S. −0.54 −0.18   <0.01 (−0.63–−0.45) −0.11 −0.29   <0.01 (−0.12–−0.10)
Taiwan U.S. 0.03 0.01   0.68 (−0.05–0.10) −0.04 −0.11   <0.01 (−0.05–−0.03)
Hospital handoffs and transitions Japan Taiwan −0.05 −0.02   0.55 (−0.18–0.07) −0.04 −0.11   <0.01 (−0.05–−0.02)
Japan U.S. −0.06 −0.02   0.35 (−0.15–0.04) −0.05 −0.14   <0.01 (−0.07–−0.04)
Taiwan U.S. 0.00 0.00   1.00 (−0.08–0.07) −0.02 −0.04   <0.01 (−0.03–−0.01)
  1. P, according to Tukey's honestly significant difference (HSD) test; CI, confidence interval.
  2. Cohen's d > |0.5|.