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Table 1 Materials and response rates

From: The characteristics of patient safety culture in Japan, Taiwan and the United States

  Japan Taiwan U.S.
Recruiting strategy    
Hospitals Voluntary participation§ Stratified sampling & Voluntary participation Voluntary participation§
Respondents in the hospital All healthcare workers A part of the healthcare workers All healthcare workers or a part of the healthcare workers††
Period of survey Jan 2009–Jan 2010 Jul 2007–Aug 2008 Jan 2006–Jun 2009
Number of participated hospitals    
<300 beds 3 23 702
300–499 beds 7 13 117
≥500 beds 4 38 65
Total 14 74 884
Number of the subjects    
Distribution 10,466 11,692 827,424
Recovery 8,192 (78.3%) 10,289 (88.0%) 337,862 (40.8%)
Valid data 6,963 (66.5%) 10,019 (85.7%) 291,341 (35.2%)
  1. §Hospitals were not selected randomly and participation was voluntary.
  2. Ten hospitals participated voluntarily and 64 were selected randomly.
  3. Depending on the number of beds in each hospital, 10–300 questionnaires were distributed.
  4. ††The questionnaires were distributed to all staff at 637 hospitals and to some staff at 247 hospitals.
  5. Incomplete questionnaires were excluded from the analysis, and included surveys with less than an entire section completed, surveys with fewer than half of the total items completed, or surveys with identical responses to every item.