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Table 2 Adjusted all-cause or MS-specific ER and hospitalization visits

From: Resource utilization, costs and treatment patterns of switching and discontinuing treatment of MS patients with high relapse activity

Variablea All-cause ER visits All-cause hospitalizations MS-specific ER visits MS-specific hospitalizations
MS Relapse ≥2 1.33 (1.15-1.54)b 1.97 (1.67-2.32)b 1.72 (1.43-2.08)b 3.25 (2.47-4.29)b
Age group     
  (36–45, Ref: 18–35) 0.81 (0.70-0.93)c 0.66 (0.54-0.80)b 0.82 (0.67-1.01) 1.20 (0.79-1.83)
  (46–55, Ref: 18–35) 0.75 (0.65-0.85)b 0.79 (0.66-0.94)c 0.70 (0.58-0.85)d 0.95 (0.63-1.43)
  (56–65, Ref: 18–35) 0.83 (0.72-0.95)c 1.02 (0.86-1.22) 0.70 (0.58-0.85)d 0.82 (0.54-1.25)
  (65+, Ref: 18–35) 1.12 (0.95-1.32) 1.70 (1.38-2.08)b 0.71 (0.55-0.90)c 0.92 (0.55-1.52)
Female (Ref: male) 1.10 (1.01-1.20)c 0.95 (0.85-1.06) 1.07 (0.93-1.22) 0.87 (0.68-1.12)
Region     
  North Central (Ref: Northeast) 1.16 (1.03-1.30)c 1.09 (0.94-1.27) 1.60 (1.32-1.95)b 1.24 (0.88-1.76)
  South (Ref: Northeast) 1.03 (0.91-1.16) 1.01 (0.87-1.18) 1.33 (1.09-1.62)c 0.97 (0.68-1.38)
  West (Ref: Northeast) 0.95 (0.84-1.08) 0.93 (0.78-1.10) 1.64 (1.33-2.02)b 0.82 (0.54-1.22)
  Unknown (Ref: Northeast) 1.63 (0.54-4.92) 1.04 (0.22-4.85) 1.08 (0.14-8.55) 7.77 (1.57-38.53)c
Non-Employee (Ref: Employee) 1.07 (1.00-1.15) 1.06 (0.97-1.17) 1.12 (1.00-1.25)c 1.35 (1.09-1.67)c
Plan type     
  HMO and POS capitation (Ref: FFS) 0.94 (0.85-1.04) 0.93 (0.81-1.06) 1.13 (0.98-1.30) 0.80 (0.58-1.11)
  Missing (Ref: FFS) 0.76 (0.59-0.98) 0.79 (0.57-1.11) 0.91 (0.63-1.32) 0.67 (0.27-1.65)
CCI 1.13 (1.10-1.16)b 1.21 (1.17-1.25)b 1.04 (1.0-1.09) 1.09 (1.01-1.17)c
Any MS symptoms 1.53 (1.40-1.67)b 1.47 (1.30-1.66)b 1.56 (1.36-1.80)b 1.70 (1.24-2.33)c
Any DMT use 0.87 (0.80-0.94)c 0.79 (0.72-0.87)b 0.96 (0.85-1.07) 1.24 (0.98-1.57)
All-cause ER visits 2.50 (2.31-2.71)b 1.75 (1.58-1.94)b 2.33 (2.07-2.62)b 1.86 (1.47-2.35)b
All-cause hospitalizations 1.37 (1.24-1.52)b 2.43 (2.16-2.73)b 1.46 (1.27-1.69)b 3.12 (2.43-4.01)b
  1. MS=multiple sclerosis; Ref=reference; HMO=health maintenance organization; POS=point of service; FFS=fee for service; CCI=Charlson Comorbidity Index; DMTs=disease modifying therapy; ER=emergency room.
  2. aVariables were from 2009 and outcomes measured in 2010.
  3. bAll tests were statistically significant at P<0.0001, c P<0.05; and d P<0.001.
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