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Table 1 Comparison of the baseline sociodemographic characteristics, clinical characteristics and use of healthcare resources in the intervention and control groups

From: Impact of telemonitoring home care patients with heart failure or chronic lung disease from primary care on healthcare resource use (the TELBIL study randomised controlled trial)

  IG CG p-value I
  (n = 28) (n = 30)  
Sociodemographic variables
Sex, n (%)    0.198
Men 14 (50%) 20 (66.7%)  
Women 14 (50%) 10 (33.3%)  
Age (years), mean (SD) 80.7 (9) 81.3 (6) 0.653
Living with:, n (%)    0.553
alone 4 (14.3%) 2 (6.7%)  
spouse/partner 11 (39.3%) 15 (50%)  
Others (other relatives, formal career, etc.) 13 (46.4%) 13 (43.3%)  
Caregiver, n (%)    0.149
Spouse/partner 10 (35.7%) 16 (53.3%)  
Daughter 9 (32.1%) 8 (26.7%)  
Other relative 4 (14.3%) 0 (0%)  
Other 5 (17.9%) 6 (20%)  
Lack of social support II, n (%) 8 (28.6%) 2 (6.7%) 0.038
Clinical and functional variables
Disease-related reason for inclusion, n (%)    0.596
Heart failure 6 (21.2%) 10 (33.3%)  
Lung disease 8 (28.6%) 7 (23.3%)  
Both 14 (50%) 13 (43.4%)  
Home oxygen therapy, n (%) 16 (57.1%) 14 (46.7%) 0.425
Comorbidity Charlson Index ≥2, n (%) 24 (85.7%) 26 (86.7%) 1
Indicators of clinical deterioration III, n (%) 21 (75%) 25 (83.3%) 0.434
Conditions to determine frequent use of healthcare services IV, n (%) 19 (67.9%) 24 (80%) 0.291
Adequate treatment adherence (Morisky Adherence Scale), n (%) 28 (100%) 29 (96.7%) 1
Use of healthcare resources over the year prior to inclusion
Regular medicines/day, mean (SD) 10.1 (3.1) 11.1 (3.3) 0.240
All-cause hospitalisations, mean (SD) 3.4 (1.7) 3.4 (1.7) 0.981
Cause-specific hospitalisationsV, mean (SD) 2.6 (1.5) 2.6 (1.5) 0.891
Length of stay (days/admission), mean (SD) 11.3 (6) 10.4 (7) 0.207
Emergency department attendances not resulting in admission, median (IQR) 1 (0 – 5) 1 (0 – 6) 0.920
Appointments with specialists, median (IQR) 3 (0 – 13) 2.5 (0 – 12) 0.129
Home visits, median (IQR) 20.0 (3 – 139) 23.5 (3 – 67) 0.291
Telephone contacts, median (IQR) 3 (0 – 22) 3.5 (0 – 20) 0.619
  1. IG: intervention group; CG: control group. The data are expressed as frequency and percentage (%) for categorical variables, and as mean with the standard deviation (SD) or median with the interquartile range (IQR) for continuous variables.
  2. I Chi-square or Fisher’s exact tests were used to compare categorical variables and Student’s t-tests or non-parametric Wilcoxon tests to compare continuous variables.
  3. II Based on the assessment of social factors including poverty, loneliness, isolation, social exclusion, and recent widowhood.
  4. III Presence of at least one of the following characteristics: bone and joint disease, ischaemic heart disease, sequelae of cerebrovascular accident, Parkinson’s disease, diabetes, obesity (body mass index >30), visual or hearing impairment, current mental illness (receiving treatment), or other factors considered relevant by the patient’s doctor and documented.
  5. IV On acenocoumarol and/or presence of pressure ulcers and/or need for regular dressing changes or injections.
  6. V Admissions to hospital for respiratory and heart-related problems.