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Table 6 Determinants of expenditure on medicine and of informal payments in 2011

From: Out-of-pocket expenditures for primary health care in Tajikistan: a time-trend analysis

   Expenditure on medicine Payment to the family doctor
Characteristic   N Coefficient (95% CI) P-value N Coefficient (95% CI) P-value
Rayon        
  Dangara 172 1.00   47 1.00  
  Varzob 83 2.18 (1.67, 2.86) 0.000 59 1.67 (1.40, 1.95) 0.000
  Shahrinav 117 1.72 (1.32, 2.20) 0.000 103 1.43 (1.22, 1.67) 0.000
  Tursunzade 161 1.43 (1.12, 1.84) 0.005 169 1.15 (1.00, 1.34) 0.052
Reason to consult        
  diarrhoea 62 1.00   31 1.00  
  digestive (gastrointestinal) 33 1.25 (0.85, 1.82) 0.257 13 0.93 (0.71, 1.22) 0.606
  cardiovascular 34 1.40 (0.96, 2.08) 0.082 16 1.04 (0.78, 1.38) 0.795
  respiratory 47 1.14 (0.81, 1.62) 0.442 26 0.91 (0.74, 1.14) 0.435
  pregnancy 212 0.76 (0.58, 1.00) 0.050 231 0.96 (0.82, 1.14) 0.648
  genitourinary 36 1.30 (0.90, 1.88) 0.168 22 1.12 (0.89, 1.42) 0.334
  injuries 15 0.58 (0.35, 0.96) 0.036 6 1.32 (0.90, 1.93) 0.152
  anemia 19 1.99 (1.25, 3.16) 0.004 6 1.19 (0.82, 1.72) 0.369
  diabetes 26 1.21 (0.79, 1.88) 0.385 5 1.45 (0.97, 2.16) 0.067
  osteochondrosis 15 1.11 (0.65, 1.90) 0.699 2 0.98 (0.50, 1.90) 0.944
  other 34 1.72 (1.16, 2.51) 0.006 20 0.86 (0.68, 1.09) 0.215
Referral to specialist        
  not referred 248 1.00   156 1.00  
  referred 283 1.63 (1.35, 1.95) 0.000 221 1.05 (0.96, 1.15) 0.248
Self-assessed health status        
  very good 159 1.00   103 1.00  
  ok 328 1.21 (1.01, 1.46) 0.042 250 0.96 (0.87, 1.06) 0.481
  Poor / very poor 46 1.97 (1.39, 2.80) 0.000 25 1.08 (0.90, 1.32) 0.400
Economic position        
  Lowest 40% 214 1.00   101 1.00  
  Middle 40% 213 1.13 (0.94, 1.35) 0.201 175 1.09 (0.98, 1.22) 0.094
  Highest 20% 106 1.32 (1.04, 1.70) 0.023 102 1.32 (1.17, 1.51) 0.000
  1. Coefficent: the mean of each category is compared to the baseline (1.00).
  2. NB : only statistically significant determinants are presented in this table, and the significant determinants are in bold (P<0.05). CI : Confidence interval at 95% level.